8th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems 23 - 27, May 2006             Paphos - Cyprus Full Paper Submission: deadline expired Position Paper Submission: deadline expired Authors Notification: deadline expired Final Paper Submission and Registration: deadline expired

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ICEIS 2006 Abstracts
Conference Areas
- Databases and Information Systems Integration
- Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems
- Information Systems Analysis and Specification
- Software Agents and Internet Computing
- Human-Computer Interaction

ICEIS Doctoral Consortium

Workshops
- Wireless Information Systems
- Modelling, Simulation,Verification and Validation of Enterprise Information Systems
- Natural Language Understanding and Cognitive Science
- Ubiquitous Computing
- Security In Information Systems
- Computer Supported Activity Coordination
- Pattern Recognition in Information Systems
- Model-Driven Enterprise Information Systems
- Technologies for Collaborative Business Processes

 Area 1 - Databases and Information Systems Integration Title: RANDOM SAMPLING ALGORITHMS FOR LANDMARK WINDOWS OVER DATA STREAMS Author(s): Zhang Longbo, Li Zhanhuai,Yu Min, Wang Yong and Jiang Yun Abstract: In many applications including sensor networks, telecommunications data management, network monitoring and financial applications, data arrives in a stream. There are growing interests in algorithms over data streams recently. This paper introduces the problem of sampling from landmark windows of recent data items from data streams and presents a random sampling algorithm for this problem. The presented algorithm, which is called SMS Algorithm, is a stratified multistage sampling algorithm for landmark window. It takes different sampling fraction in different strata of landmark window, and works even when the number of data items in the landmark window varies dramatically over time. The theoretic analysis and experiments show that the algorithm is effective and efficient for continuous data streams processing. Title: A PROTOTYPE FOR TRANSLATING XSLT INTO XQUERY Author(s): Ralf Bettentrupp, Sven Groppe, Jinghua Groppe, Stefan Böttcher and Le Gruenwald Abstract: XSLT and XQuery are the languages developed by the W3C for transforming and querying XML data. XSLT and XQuery have the same expressive power and can be indeed translated into each other. In this paper, we show how to translate XSLT stylesheets into equivalent XQuery expressions. We especially investigate how to simulate the match test of XSLT templates by two different approaches which use reverse patterns or match node sets. We then present a performance analysis that compares the execution times of the translation, XSLT stylesheets and their equivalent XQuery expressions using various current XSLT processors and XQuery evaluators. Title: INVESTIGATING THE IMPROVEMENT SPACE OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATIONS Author(s): Joseph Trienekens, Rob Kusters, Frans van Veen, Dirk Kriek, Daniel Maton and Paul Siemons Abstract: Actual results of software process improvement projects happen to be quite dissapointing in practice. Although many software development organisations have adopted improvement models such as CMMI, it appears to be difficult to improve software development processes in the right way, e.g. tuned to the actual needs of the organisation and taking into account the environment (e.g. the market) of an organisation. This paper presents a new approach to determine the direction of improvement for an organisation. This approach is based on literature research as well as an empirical investigation among eleven software development organisations in The Netherlands. The results of the research show that software development organisations can be classified and can be positioned on the basis of their internal and external entropy, c.q. the level of (dis)order in the business system and its environment. Based on a possible imbalance between the internal and external entropy, directions for software process improvement can be determined. As such the new approach can complement and improve the application of current software process improvement methodologies, e.g. CMMI Title: PERHAPS A RECIPE FOR CHANGE? - WILL E-VOTING HAVE THE DESIRED EFFECT? Author(s): Mark Liptrott Abstract: This work is a progress report and briefly describes the main findings from the literature review of the research into electronic voting as it identifies factors which affect the decision-making processes of the English local authorities which are offered the opportunity to trial electronic voting. The analysis is based on Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory framework. A key result found that in a voluntary situation where there is one overarching organization trying to introduce an innovation to an agency organization, Rogers diffusion of innovations theory framework requires modification. Title: SPLITTING FACTS USING WEIGHTS Author(s): Liga Grundmane and Laila Niedrite Abstract: The typical data warehouse report is dynamic representation of some objects behavior or changes of objects’ properties. If this behavior is changing, it is difficult to make such reports in an easy way. It is possible to use fact splitting to make this task simpler and more comprehensible for users. In the presented paper two solutions of splitting facts by using weights are described. One of the possible solutions is to make the proportional weighting accordingly to splitted record set size. It is possible to take into account the length of the fact validity time period and the validity time for each splitted fact record. Title: IMPLEMENTING A HIGH LEVEL PUB/SUB LAYER FOR ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Mario Antollini, Mariano Cilia and Alejandro Buchmann Abstract: Enterprise application interactions based on events has been receiving increasing attention. It is based on the exchange of small pieces of data (called events) typically using the publish/subscribe interaction paradigm. Most pub/sub notification services assume a homogeneous namespace and do not support the interaction among heterogeneous event producers and consumers. In this paper we briefly describe the concept-based approach as a high-level dissemination mechanism for distributed and heterogeneous event-based applications. We focus on the design and implementation issues of such a mechanism and show how it can be integrated on research prototypes or products and platforms. Title: CREATING AND MANIPULATING CONTROL FLOW GRAPHS WITH MULTILEVEL GROUPING AND CODE COVERAGE Author(s): Anastasis A. Sofokleous, Andreas S. Andreou and Gianna Ioakim Abstract: Various researchers and practitioners have proposed the use of control flow graphs for investigating software engineering aspects, such as testing, slicing, program analysis and debugging. However, the relevant software applications support only low level languages (e.g. C, C++) and most, if not all, of the research papers do not provide any details about the implementation of the control flow graph, leaving it to the reader to imagine either that the author is using third party software for creating the graph, or that the graph is constructed manually (by hand). The same holds for code coverage tools as well. In this paper, we extend our previous work on a dedicated program analysis architecture and we describe a tool for automatic production of the control flow graph that offers advanced capabilities, such as vertices grouping, code coverage based on a given set of inputs and enhanced user interaction. Title: COMBINING BUSINESS ACTIVITY MONITORING WITH THE DATA WAREHOUSE FOR EVENT-CONTEXT CORRELATION - EXAMINING THE PRACTICAL APPLICABILITY OF THIS BAM APPROACH Author(s): Gabriel Cavalheiro, Ajantha Dahanayake and Richard Welke Abstract: Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) is a term introduced by the Gartner Group to define systems that serve to provide real-time access to critical business performance indicators to improve speed and effectiveness of business operations. Despite the emphasis of BAM on the provision of low latency views on enterprise performance, literature on BAM also indicates the technical feasibility of a BAM approach, which adds context from historical information stored in a data warehouse to real-time events detected by BAM system so as to help enterprises improving understanding of current monitoring scenarios. However, at this point, there is a lack of studies that discuss the use of this approach to tackle real-world business problems. To improve practical understanding of the potential applicability of this BAM approach, this paper will present a synthesis of existing research on BAM and data warehouse to provide an objective basis for proposing feasible business scenarios for applying the combination of both technologies. This study reveals that the noted BAM approach empowers operational managers to respond in a more precise manner to the occurrence of events by enabling a better understanding of the nature of the detected event. Title: A GUI FOR DATA MART SCHEMA ALTERATION Author(s): Nouha Bouaziz, Faiez Gargouri and Jamel Feki Abstract: This paper is interested in the graphical manipulation of data mart schemes described in XML and issued from a generation module of multidimensional models. This manipulation is performed through a set of operations we have defined. These operations consist in adding, deleting and renaming the multidimensional elements. Title: ELIMINATION OF TIME DEPENDENCE OF INFORMATION VALIDITY BY APPLICATION OF RFID TECHNOLOGY Author(s): Vladimir Modrak and Viaceslav Moskvic Abstract: Following article deals with certain aspects of data acquisition for MRP, ERP and MES type of information systems from a shop floor level. Problems of time dependence of data validity are discussed and method of their elimination by application of radio frequency identification technology (RFID) is suggested. Title: WEB KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZE ENTERPRISES - WEBTOUR: A CASE STUDY FROM THE TOURISM SECTOR Author(s): María M. Abad-Grau, Francisco Araque, Rosana Montes, M. Visitación Hurtado and Miguel J. Hornos Abstract: The current enterprise world has become global and complex. Knowledge management is a key to have a competitive advantage as it allows detecting in advance customer trends and market evolution. While knowledge management systems are usually unaffordable for small or even medium-size enterprises, a tool to be shared between them is a more realistic solution. The system, based on client/server architecture with a web interface, is able to provide top Information Technology (IT) solutions for a low cost so that small and medium business can also use these systems to acquire competitive advantage. We have developed a solution for a IT enterprise providing an on-line reservation system for tourist small lodgings and travel agencies. It consists of a Data Warehouse (DW) and a Decision Support System (DSS) which is currently being offered as a value-added service for providers and customers. Title: FORMAL VERIFICATION OF AN ACCESS CONCURRENCY CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR TRANSACTION TIME RELATIONS Author(s): Achraf Makni, Rafik Bouaziz and Faïez Gargouri Abstract: We propose in this paper to formally check the access concurrency control algorithm proposed in (Bouaziz, 2005). This algorithm is based on the optimistic approach and guarantee strong consistency for the transaction time relations. The specification of our model under PROMELA language allowed us to ensure the feasibility of the validation. We then could, using the SPIN model checkers, avoid errors of type blocking and check safety properties specified by temporal logic formulas. Title: PARALLEL QUERY PROCESSING USING WARP EDGED BUSHY TREES IN MULTIMEDIA DATABASES Author(s): Lt.S.Santhosh Baboo, P.Subashini and K.S.Easwarakumar Abstract: The paper focuses on parallelization of queries execution on a shared memory parallel database system. In this paper, a new data structures, named Warp edged Bushy trees, is proposed for facilitating compile time optimization. The warp edged bushy tree is a modified version of bushy trees [1], which provides better response time than bushy trees, during query processing Title: DESIGNING IMAGING SOLUTIONS FOR AN ORGANIZATION Author(s): Prasad N. Sivalanka Abstract: In a business climate where organizations are looking for ways to cut costs and increase Productivity, document imaging systems are providing the most dramatic impact. Efficient management of that paper is crucial to the success of any organization business community where 90% of corporate information resides in paper documents. A process driven document management system is necessary that converts paper documents into electronic documents for easy filing, retrieval and storage. This paper addresses the above issue which was implemented at one of our large financial clients. Title: SCALABLE UPDATE PROPAGATION IN PARTIALLY REPLICATED, DISCONNECTED CLIENT SERVER DATABASES Author(s): Liton Chakraborty, Ajit singh and Kshirasagar Naik Abstract: Modern databases allow mobile clients, that subscribe to replicated data, to process the replica forgoing continuous connectivity, and to receive the updates while connected to the server. Based on the overlap in client interest pattern, the server can do update processing for manageable number of data-groups instead of per-client basis, and hence decouple the update processing cost from the client population. In this paper, we propose an efficient update propagation method that can be applied to a relational database system irrespective of its inherent data organization. We present computationally efficient algorithms for group design and maintenance based on a heuristic function. We provide experimental results that demonstrate that our approach achieves a significant increase in overall scalability over the client-centric approach. Title: DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR MOBILE MESSAGING SERVICES Author(s): David CC Ong, Rytis Sileika, Souheil Khaddaj and Radouane Oudrhiri Abstract: A mobile messaging revolution for the mobile phone industry started with the introduction of the Short Messaging Service (SMS), which is limited to 160 characters of conventional text. This revolution has become more significant with the additional improvements in mobile devices. They have become relatively powerful with extra resources such as additional memory capacity and innovative features such as colour screen, photo camera, etc. Now Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) takes full advantage of these capabilities by providing longer messages with embedded sound, image and video streaming. This service presents a new challenge to mobile platform architects particularly in the data management area where the size of each MMS message could be up to 100,000 bytes long. This combined with a high volume of requests managed by these platforms which may well exceeded 250,000 requests per second, means that the need to evaluate competing data management systems has becoming essential. This paper presents an evaluation of SMS and MMS platforms using different data management systems and recommends the best data management strategies for these platforms. Title: COMBINING THE DATA WAREHOUSE AND OPERATIONAL DATA STORE Author(s): Ahmed Sharaf Eldin Ahmed, Yasser Ali Alhabibi and Abdel Badeeh M. Salem Abstract: Many of small business organizations tend to combine the operational data stores (ODS) and data warehousing (DW) in one structure in order to save the expenses of building two separate structures for each of them. The purpose of this paper is investigating the expected obstacles that may affect organizations that try to combine the ODS and DW in one structure. Both the analytical and comparative analysis are used to investigate the obstacles and drawbacks that have been faced in combining the ODS and DW in one structure. Title: CONVERTING TIME SERIES DATA FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Author(s): Li Peng Abstract: Most enterprises have an autonomous and heterogeneous information system. The same data may be diversely represented in different information systems. The core of solutions for integrating heterogeneous data sources is data conversion. One of the major issues of data conversion is how to convert data that contains temporal information. In this paper I propose a method to effectively convert time-series data appearing in enterprises. The concept of calendar is integrated into the proposed method. The method is based on a generalized representing form for data. The converting operations and processes are defined and presented. Title: ALGORITHMS FOR INTEGRATING TEMPORAL PROPERTIES OF DATA IN DATA WAREHOUSING Author(s): Francisco Araque, Alberto Salgueroa, Cecilia Delgadob, Eladio Garvíb and José Samosb Abstract: One of the most complex issues of the integration and transformation interface is the case where there are multiple sources for a single data element in the enterprise data warehouse. While there are many facets to the large number of variables that are needed in the integration phase, what we are interested in is the temporal problem. It is necessary to solve problems such as what happens when data from data source A is available but data from data source B is not. This paper presents our work into data integration in the Data Warehouse on the basis of the temporal properties of the data sources. Depending on the extraction method and data source, we can determine whether it will be possible to incorporate the data into the Data Warehouse. We shall also examine the temporal features of the data extraction methods and propose algorithms for data integration depending on the temporal characteristics of the data sources and on the data extraction method. Title: ANALYSIS-SENSITIVE CONVERSION OF ADMINISTRATIVE DATA INTO STATISTICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Mirko Cesarini, Mariagrazia Fugini and Mario Mezzanzanica Abstract: In this paper we present a methodological approach to develop a Statistical Information System (SIS), out of data coming from administrative archives of the Public Administrations. Such archives are a rich source of information, but an attempt to use them as sources for statistical analysis reveals errors and incompatibilities among each other that do not permit their usage as a statistical and decision support basis. These errors and incompatibilities are usually undetected during administrative use, since they do not affect their day-by-day use in the Public Administrations, however they need to be fixed before performing any further aggregate analysis. The proposed methodological approach encompasses the basic aspects involved in building a SIS out of administrative data, such as design of an integration model for different and heterogeneous data sources, improvement of the overall data quality, removal of errors that might impact on the correctness of statistical analysis, design of a data warehouse for statistical analysis, and design of a multidimensional database to develop indicators for decision support. We present a case study, the AMeRIcA Project, where the methodological approach has been applied starting from administrative data of a Municipality and of a Province in Northern Italy. Title: SYNCHRONIZATION AND MULTIPLE GROUP SERVER SUPPORT FOR KEPLER Author(s): K. Maly, M Zubair, H. Siripuram and S. Zunjarwad Abstract: In the last decade literally thousands of digital libraries have emerged but one of the biggest obstacles for dissemination of information to a user community is that many digital libraries use different, proprietary technologies that inhibit interoperability. Kepler framework addresses interoperability and gives publication control to individual publishers. In Kepler, OAI-PMH is used to support "personal data providers" or "archivelets".". In our vision, individual publishers can be integrated with an institutional repository like Dspace by means of a Kepler Group Digital Library (GDL). The GDL aggregates metadata and full text from archivelets and can act as an OAI-compliant data provider for institutional repositories. The basic Kepler architecture and it working have been reported in earlier papers. In this paper we discuss the three main features that we have recently added to the Kepler framework: mobility support for users to switch transparently between traditional archivelets to on-server archivelets, the ability of users to work with multiple GDLs, and flexibility to individual publishers to build an OAI-PMH compliant repository without getting attached to a GDL. Title: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACH TO THE REPRESENTATION OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL MULTI-GRANULARITY Author(s): Concepción M. Gascueña, Dolores Cuadra and Paloma Martínez Abstract: Many efforts have been devoted to the treatment of spatial data in databases both in traditional database systems and decision support systems or On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) technologies in datawarehouses (DW). Nevertheless, many open questions concerning this kind of data still remain. The work presented in this paper is focused on dealing with the spatial and temporal granularity within a logical multidimensional model. The spatial data representation through a multidimensional model clarifies the understanding of the data analysis subject and it allows discovering special behavior hardly detected without it. We propose an extension of the Snowflake model to gather the spatial data and to show our proposal to represent the spatial evolution through the time in an easy and intuitive way. We represented the temporal and spatial multi-granularity with different levels in the hierarchies of dimensions, and we present a typology of hierarchies to include more semantics in the Snowflake scheme. Title: A DISCRETE PARTICLE SWARM ALGORITHM FOR OLAP DATA CUBE SELECTION Author(s): Jorge Loureiro and Orlando Belo Abstract: Multidimensional analysis supported by Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems demands for many aggregation functions over enormous data volumes. In order to achieve query answering times compatible with the OLAP systems’ users, and allowing all the business analytical views required, OLAP data is organized as a multidimensional model, known as data cube. The materialization of all the data cubes required for decision makers would allow fast and consistent answering times to OLAP queries. However, this also imply intolerable costs, concerning to storage space and time, even when a data warehouse had a medium size and dimensionality - this will be critical on refreshing operations. On the other hand, given a query profile, only a part of all subcubes are really interesting. Thus, cube selection must be made aiming to minimize query (and maintenance) costs, keeping as an constraint the materializing space. That is a complex problem: its solution is NP-hard. Many algorithms and several heuristics, especially of greedy nature and evolutionary approaches, have been used to provide an approximate solution. To this problem, a new algorithm is proposed in this paper: particle swarm optimization (PSO). According to our experimental results, the solution achieved by the PSO algorithm showed a speed of execution, convergence capacity and consistence that allow electing it to use in data warehouse systems of medium dimensionalities. Title: A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING ENTERPRISE RESOURCES PLANNING (ERP) SYSTEMS SUCCESS:AN EXAMINATION OF ITS ASPECT FOCUSING ON CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES Author(s): Princely Ifinedo Abstract: Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are diffusing globally. It is important for adopting firms to assess the success of their software. However, in general, studies have shown that often firms investing heavily in information systems (IS) sometimes do not assess the success of their systems for a variety of reasons including a lack of knowledge about what to assess. Similarly, research in the area of IS success evaluations is varied, offering little succour to practitioners. Specifically, ERP systems success assessment in the literature is just beginning to surface. This paper discussing our effort regarding extending an existing ERP systems success model. Essentially, two new relevant success factors or dimensions not included in the previous model were incorporated and tested empirically. We used structural equation modeling for our study. The findings of the study are discussed and implications for both practice and research are highlighted. Title: A NEW APPROACH TO IMPLEMENT EXTENDED TRANSACTION MODELS IN J2EE Author(s): Xiaoning Ding, Xiangfeng Guo, Beihong Jin and Tao Huang Abstract: Extended transaction model (ETM) is a powerful mechanism to ensure the consistency and reliability of complicated enterprise applications. However, there is few implementation of ETM in J2EE. The existing research is deficient in supporting range and requires some special database supporting. This paper explores the obstacle which prevents J2EE from supporting ETMs, and argues it is because of the limitation of J2EE XAResource interface and underlying databases. To overcome the obstacle, we propose a new approach, which processes concurrency control inside J2EE application server instead of in database. Furthermore, we implement TX/E service in JBoss to validate the approach, which is an enhanced J2EE transaction service supporting extended transaction models. Compared to existing work, TX/E supports user-defined transaction models and does not require any special database supporting. Title: DATABASES AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS INTEGRATION USING CALOPUS : A CASE STUDY Author(s): Prabin Kumar Patro, Pat Allen, Muthu Ramachandran, Robert Morgan-Vane and Stuart Bolton Abstract: Effective, accurate and timely data integration is fundamental to the successful operation of today’s organizations. The success of every new business initiative relies heavily on data integration between existing heterogeneous applications and databases. For this reason, when companies look to improve productivity, reduce overall costs, or streamline business processes, data integration should be at the heart of their plans. Integration improves exposure and, by extension, the value and quality of information to facilitate workflow and reduce business risk. It is an important element of the way that the organization’s business process operates. Data integration technology is the key to pulling organization data together and delivering an information infrastructure that will meet strategic business intelligence initiatives. This information infrastructure consists of data warehouses, interface definitions and operational data stores. Data integration should include capabilities such as data warehousing, metadata integration, ongoing updates and reduced maintenance, access to a wider variety of data sources, and design and debugging options. In this paper we will discuss about data integration and a case study on Database Integration at Leeds Metropolitan University using the Calopus system. Title: SUPPORTING E-PLACEMENT: ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE ITALIAN WORKFARE PROJECT Author(s): Mariagrazia Fugini, Piercarlo Maggiolini and Krysnaia Nanini Abstract: This paper presents the basic developments and architectural issues of an Italian “Borsa Continua Nazionale del Lavoro” (BCNL), an eGovernment project aimed at developing a Portal for Services to Employment. It consists in a network of nodes structured at three main levels: the National level, managed by the Ministry of Welfare; the Regional level, in which Regions are grouped in local federations in order to interoperate, and the Provincial level, again structured as a federation of local domains. These federations are the structural tool able to support both proactive and reactive policies directed to enhance job-placement. The paper describes each level and the cooperation occurring both in the various domains and among levels. Advantages and drawbacks of this architecture are discussed. Finally, the paper describes the basic issues related to security and privacy in the environment, in particular presenting cooperative federated authentication. Title: CURRENT TRENDS IN DATA WAREHOUSING METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES Author(s): Vera Ivanova Abstract: Data Warehousing (DW) methods and technologies are in a new stage of their evolution and of their amalgamation with the enterprise businesses, they serve. The main goals of this work are to identify, review and analyze the latest trends in DW. A systematic approach is followed to recognize, define and analyze the most important trends. The approach is based on the trends’ corresponding role and value in the business processes and intelligence (BI). For this purpose we start with updated definitions of DW and BI and then consider the generalized Architecture of today’s DW. We then “drill down” to analyze the DW problems and trends in their solving for data quality provisions, regulatory compliance, infrastructure consolidation, and standardization, corporate performance optimization and metadata management. This in-depth logical analyzing approach results in comprehensible conclusions to be considered on the important early phases of DW projects, as it is well known that early project decisions carry impacts for the whole DW system life span. Title: EFFICIENT MECHANISM FOR HANDLING MATERIALIZED XML VIEWS Author(s): Jessica Zheng, Anthony Lo, Tansel Özyer and Reda Alhajj Abstract: Materialized views provide an effective and effective mechanism to improve query performance. The necessity to keep consistency between materialized views and the underlying data raises the problem of when and how to update views efficiently. This paper addresses the issue of deferred incremental update on materialized XML view. The proposed approach mainly extends our previous work on materialized object-oriented views. The overlap between XML and the object-oriented paradigm has been the main driving motivation to conduct the study described in this paper. We modified and adapted the later approach to meet XML requirements. Title: A FORMAL TOOL THAT INTEGRATES RELATIONAL DATABASE SCHEMES AND PRESERVES THE ORIGINAL INFORMATION Author(s): A. Mora and M. Enciso Abstract: In this work we face on with the main problem of the database design process in a collaborative environment: the users provide different models representing a part of the global model and we must integrate these database sub-shemes to render a unified database. The problems arise when the users' specifications do not match propertly or, in the worst case, they represent contradictory information. In the literature, the different approaches use a selected canonical language to translate all the sub-shemes and to carried out the integration process. It seems to be widely accepted to select the Entity/Relational (E/R) model as canonical language. Nevertheless it was not conceived as a formal language and its use produces several troubles: it is not easy to identify equivalent specifications, the information are represented in several levels (attributes, table, constraints, etc) that must be integrate as a whole, etc. All these problems are presented because the E/R was conceived to be a high level specification language and not to design automated integration methods based on it. In this work we propose an automated method to integrate relational database sub-schemes based on a formal language. The extraction, integration and generation tasks are carried out efficiently using the SLfd, logic (Substitution Logic for functional dependencies). We have selected this logic because it is appropriated to management the functional dependencies in a automatic way. Logic is present in all the stages of our proposed architecture: analysis, design, model transformation, integration, data preservation, etc. The integration tool interacts automatically with the DBMS (we use Oracle 9i), uses the logic in a transparent mode to deduce the unified view and provides a web-interface to facilitate user participation. The collaborative tool infers the information system knowledge from local Oracle schemes and renders an integrated Oracle database scheme. The integration process uses the information of the {\em Structural functional dependencies (FDs)} (FDs inferred from all the database subschemes) and the {\em Environment FDs} (FDs provided by the designers) and it renders a unique database model fulfilling all the FDs. The tool carries out an integration of the schemes and an integration of the data itself, providing a new database with a common structure and containing all the information provided in the original subschemes. Title: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEMANTIC RECOVERY STRATEGIES IN CASE OF PROCESS ACTIVITY FAILURES Author(s): Stefanie Rinderle, Sarita Bassil and Manfred Reichert Abstract: During automated process execution semantic activity failures may frequently occur, e.g., when a vehicle transporting a container has a breakdown. So far there are no applicable solutions to overcome such exceptional situations. Often the only possibility is to cancel and roll back respective process instances what is not always possible and more often not desired. In this paper we contribute towards the system-assisted support of finding forward recovery solutions. Our framework is based on the facility to (automatically) perform dynamic changes of single process instances in order to deal with the exceptional situation. We identify and formalize factors which influence the kind of applicable recovery solutions. Then we show how to derive possible recovery solutions and how to evaluate their quality with respect to different constraints. All statements are illustrated by well-studied cases from different domains. Title: DEPLOYMENT OF ONTOLOGIES IN BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS Author(s): Carsten Felden and Daniel Kilimann Abstract: The consideration of integrated structured and unstructured data in management information systems requires a new kind of metadata management. Ontologies constitute a possibility to solve the resulting problems. Process models which describe the development of ontologies and can be utilised in the context of management information systems, are discussed. Title: ACTIVE MECHANISMS FOR CHECKING PARTICIPATION CONSTRAINTS IN UML Author(s): Djamel Berrabah, Charles-François Ducateau and Faouzi Boufarès Abstract: Among the multiple efforts devoted to face the problems of database modeling, we find the automation of the database design process using CASE tools. Often, these tools do not take into account all the information that is presented in a conceptual schema. The problem is that the relational elements obtained during these processes do not coincide completely with the conceptual elements, which produces some semantic losses. The idea is to enrich these tools and to improve them in order to solve some problems of modeling. The goal of this work is to propose an efficient approach to generate mechanisms that preserve the participation constraints defined in a conceptual schema during its transformation into a relational schema. These mechanisms are active during the maintenance of databases. If any operation brings about an inconsistent Database (DB) state it will be rejected and the data of the DB will not change. Title: INCLUSION OF TIME-VARYING MEASURES IN TEMPORAL DATA WAREHOUSES Author(s): Elzbieta Malinowski and E. Zimányi Abstract: Data Warehouses (DWs) integrate data from different source systems that may have temporal support. However, current DWs only allow to track changes for measures indicating the time when a specific measure value is valid. In this way, applications such as fraud detection cannot be easily implemented since they require to know the time when changes in source systems have occurred. In this work, based on the research related to Temporal Databases, we propose the inclusion of time-varying measures changing the current role of the time dimension. First, we analyze the availability of temporal types in the different source systems integrating a DW. Then, we study different scenarios that show the usefulness of inclusion of different temporal types. Further, since measures can be aggregated before being inserted into DWs, we discuss the issues related to different time granularities between source systems and DWs, and in addition, measure aggregation in the presence of valid time. Title: CONTINUOUS RANGE QUERY PROCESSING FOR NETWORK CONSTRAINED MOBILE OBJECTS Author(s): Dragan Stojanovic, Slobodanka Djordjevic-Kajan, Apostolos N. Papadopoulos and Alexandros Nanopoulos Abstract: In contrast to regular queries that are evaluated only once, a continuous query remains active over a period of time and has to be continuously evaluated to provide up to date results. We propose a method for continuous range query processing for different types of queries, characterized by mobility of objects and/or queries which follow paths in an underlying spatial network. The method assumes an available 2D indexing scheme for indexing spatial network data. An appropriately extended R*-tree provides matching of queries and objects according to their locations on the network or their network routes. The method introduces an additional pre-refinement step which generates main memory data structures to support efficient, incremental reevaluation of continuous range queries in periodically performed refinement steps. Title: INTEGRATION OF DATA SOURCES FOR PLANT GENOMICS Author(s): P. Larmande, C. Tranchant-Dubreuil, L. Regnier, I. Mougenot and T. Libourel Abstract: The study of the function of genes, or functional genomics, is today one of the most active disciplines in the life sciences and requires effective integration and processing of related information. Today's biologist has access to bioinformatics resources to help him in his experimental research. In genomics, several tens of public data sources can be of interest to him, each source contributing a part of the useful information. The difficulty lies in the integration of this information, often semantically inconsistent or expressing differing viewpoints, and, very often, only available in heterogenous formats. In this context, informatics has a role to play in the design of systems that are flexible and adaptable to significant changes in biological data and formats. It is within this framework that this paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated environment strongly supported by knowledge-representation and problem-solving tools. Title: USING RELATIONAL DATABASES IN THE ENGINEERING REPOSITORY SYSTEMS Author(s): Erki Eessaar Abstract: Repository system can be built on top of the database management system (DBMS). DBMSs that use relational data model are usually not considered powerful enough for this purpose. In this paper, we analyze these claims and conclude that they are caused by the shortages of SQL standard and inadequate implementations of the relational model in the current DBMSs. Problems that are presented in the paper make usage of the DBMSs in the repository systems more difficult. This paper also explains that relational system that follows the rules of the Third Manifesto is suitable for creating repository system and presents possible design alternatives. Title: MISTEL - AN APPROACH TO ACCESS MULTIPLE RESOURCES Author(s): Thomas Bopp, Thorsten Hampel, Robert Hinn, Jan Pawlowski and Christian Prpitsch Abstract: Digital documents are widely spread around the web in information systems of all kinds. The approach described in this paper is to unify the access to documents and connect applications to share, search and publish documents in a standardised way. The sample implementation uses web services to integrate knowledge management, a learning management system, and a digital library. Title: MINIMIZING THE COMPLEXITY OF DISTRIBUTED TRANSACTIONS IN CORPORATE ARCHITECTURES WITH THE USE OF ASYNCHRONOUS REPLICATION Author(s): S. Poltronieri, S. de Paula and L. N. Rossi Abstract: In architectures of software usual in big corporations, the use of the protocol “two-phase commit” for distributed transactions presents inconveniences such as code complexity, long times of answer for the final user and need of an ambient that allows complete simultaneity. We present here an alternative model, based on asynchronous replication, implemented with success in the University of São Paulo as infrastructure of integration for its corporate systems, which propitiates short transactions in the context of each database and lower time of answer with no need of a complex ambient of high availability. Title: MERGING, REPAIRING AND QUERYING INCONSISTENT DATABASES WITH FUNCTIONAL AND INCLUSION DEPENDENCIES Author(s): Luciano Caroprese, Sergio Greco and Ester Zumpano Abstract: In this paper a framework for merging, repairing and querying inconsistent databases is presented. The framework, considers integrity constraints defining primary keys, foreign keys and general functional dependencies. The approach consists of three steps: i) merge of the source databases by means of integration operators or general SQL queries, to reduce the set of tuples coming from the source databases which are inconsistent with respect to the constraints defined by the primary keys, ii) repair of the integrated database by completing and/or cleaning the set of tuples which are inconsistent with respect to the inclusion dependencies (e.g. foreign keys), and iii) compute consistent answers over repaired databases which could be still inconsistent with respect to the functional dependencies. The complexity of merging, repairing and computing consistent answers will be show to be polynomial and a prototype of a system integrating databases and computing queries over possible inconsistent databases will be presented. Title: USING GAZETTEERS TO ANNOTATE GEOGRAPHIC CATALOG ENTRIES Author(s): Daniela F. Brauner, Marco A. Casanova, Karin K. Breitman and Luiz André P. Leme Abstract: A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary containing a list of geographic names, together with their geographic locations and other descriptive information. A geographic metadata catalog holds metadata describing geographic information resources, stored in a wide variety of sources, ranging from simple PCs to large public databases. This paper argues that unique characteristics of geographic objects can be explored to address the problem of automating the generation of metadata for geographic information resources. The paper considers federations of gazetteers and geographic metadata catalogs and discusses in detail two problems, namely, how to use gazetteers to automate the description of geographic information resources and how align thesauri used by gazetteers. The paper also argues why such problems are important in the context of the proposed architecture. Title: DATA WAREHOUSES: AN ONTOLOGY APPROACH Author(s): Alexandra Pomares Quimbaya and José Abásolo Abstract: Although the dimensional design for data warehouses has been used in a considerable amount of projects, it does have limitations of expressiveness, particularly with respect to what can be said about relations and attributes properties and restrictions. We present a new way to design data warehouses, based on ontologies, that overcomes many of these limitations. In the proposed architecture descriptive ontologies are used to build the data warehouse and taxonomic ontologies are used during data preparation phase. We discuss the expressive power of Ontology approach showing a semantic comparison with dimensional model both applied to a case study. Title: DATA COMPLIANCE IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY - INTEROPERABILITY TO ALIGN BUSINESS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Néjib Moalla, Abdelaziz Bouras, Gilles Neubert, Yacine Ouzrout and Nicolas Tricca Abstract: The ultimate goal in the pharmaceutical sector is product quality. However this quality can be altered by the use of a number of heterogeneous information systems with different business structures and concepts along the lifecycle of the product. Interoperability is then needed to guarantee a certain correspondence and compliance between different product data. In this paper we focus on a particular compliance problem, between production technical data, represented in an ERP, and the corresponding regulatory directives and specifications, represented by the Marketing Authorizations (MA). The MA detail the process for manufacturing the medicine according to the requirements imposed by health organisations such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Committee for Medicinal Products for Human use (CHMP). The proposed approach uses an interoperability framework which is based on a multi-layer separation between the organisational aspects, business trades, and information technologies for each involved entity into the communication between the used systems. Title: MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCHEMA EVOLUTION - INTEGRATING NEW OLAP REQUIREMENTS Author(s): Mohamed Neji, Ahlem Nabli, Jamel Feki and Faiez Gargouri Abstract: Multidimensional databases cconstitute an effective support for OLAP processes; in that sense they improve the decision-making in enterprise information systems. These databases evolve with the decision marker requirements and are sensitive to data source changes. In this paper, we are interested in the evolution of the datamart schema due to the raise of new requirements. Our approach determines what functional datamarts will be able to cover a new requirement, if any, and decides on a strategy of integration. This leads either to the alteration of an existing data mart schema or, to the creation of a new schema suitable for the new requirement. Title: ENABLING ROBUSTNESS IN EXISTING BPEL PROCESSES Author(s): Onyeka Ezenwoye and S. Masoud Sadjadi Abstract: To promote efficiency and the reuse of software, Web services are being integrated both within enterprises and across enterprises to create higher function services. BPEL is a workflow language that can be used to facilitate this integration. Unfortunately, the autonomous nature of Web services leaves BPEL processes susceptible to the failures of their constituent services. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to making existing BPEL processes more fault tolerant by monitoring the involved Web services at runtime, and by replacing delinquent Web services dynamically. To show the feasibility of our approach, we developed a prototype implementation that generates more robust BPEL processes from existing ones automatically. The use of the prototype is demonstrated using an existing loan approval BPEL process. Title: BUSINESS PROCESS EMBEDDED INFORMATION SYSTEMS - FOR FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY Author(s): Marc Rabaey, Eddy Vandijck, Koenraad Vandenborre, Herman Tromp and Martin Timmerman Abstract: In this ever faster changing world, organisations are faced with the need to have flexible processes. This is only possible if these processes have full control over their supporting information systems, which we propose to embed into the business processes. Title: RELIABLE PERFORMANCE DATA COLLECTION FOR STREAMING MEDIA SERVICES Author(s): Beomjoo Seo, Michelle Covell, Mirjana Spasojevic, Sumit Roy, Roger Zimmermann, Leonidas Kontothanassis and Nina Bhatti Abstract: The recent proliferation of streamingmedia systems in bothwired andwireless networks challenges the network operators to provide cost-effective streaming solutions that maximize the usage of their infrastructure while maintaining adequate service quality. Some of these goals conflict and motivate the development of precise and accurate models that predict the system states under extremely diverse workloads on-the-fly. However, many earlier studies have derived models and subsequent simulations that are well-suited only for a controlled environment, and hence explain a limited sets of behavioral singularities observed from software component profiles. In this study we propose a more general, procedural methodology that characterizes a single system’s streaming capacity and derives a prediction model that is applicable for any type of workload imposed on the measured system. We describe a systematic performance evaluation methodology for streaming media systems that starts with the reliable collection of performance data, presents a mechanism to calibrate the data for later use during the modeling phase, and finally examines the prediction power and the limitations of the calibrated data itself. We validate our method with two widely used streaming media systems and the results indicate an excellent match of the modelled data with the actual system measurements. Title: FILTERING UNSATISFIABLE XPATH QUERIES Author(s): Jinghua Groppe and Sven Groppe Abstract: Empty results of queries are a hint for semantic errors in users’ queries, and erroneous and unoptimized queries can lead to highly inefficient processing of queries. For manual optimization, which is prone to errors, a user needs to be familiar with the schema of the queried data and with implementation details of the used query engine. Thus, automatic optimization techniques have been developed and have been used for decades in database management systems for the deductive and relational world. We focus on the satisfiability problem for the queries formulated in the XML query language XPath. We propose a schemabased approach to check whether or not an XPath query conforms to the constraints given in the schema in order to detect semantic errors, and in order to avoid unnecessary evaluations of unsatisfiable queries. We present experimental results of our prototype, which show the optimization potential of avoiding the evaluation of unsatisfiable queries. Title: FUZZY XML MODEL FOR REPRESENTING FUZZY RELATIONAL DATABASES IN FUZZY XML FORMAT Author(s): Alnaar Jiwani, Yasin Alimohamed, Krista Spence, Tansel Özyer and Reda Alhajj Abstract: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is emerging as the dominant data format for data exchange between application systems. Many translation techniques have been devised to publish large amounts of existing conventional relational data in this new format. There also exists a need to be able to represent imprecise data in both relational databases and XML. This paper describes a fuzzy XML schema model for representing a fuzzy relational database in XML format. It outlines a simple translation algorithm to include fuzzy relations and similarity matrices with their associated conventional relation. Title: INTEGRATED UNIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Thomas Kudrass Abstract: In this position paper, we discuss the integration of hetero¬geneous data¬¬bases with the example of a university information system, based on previous experiences in the implementation of some components. The paper argues the new opportunities for universities resulting from database integration. We develop the target architecture for an integrated information system whose principle is the coupling of existing systems and the definition of global views on them. The services defined on those views can be used for high-level information services in the intranet of the university, for internet presentations or for the definition of workflows in the university administration. Title: THE BENEFITS OF ACCURATE, AND TIMELY DATA IN LEAN PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTS - RFID IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Author(s): Vijay K. Vemuri Abstract: The usefulness of information systems critically depends on the accuracy of the data contained within it. Errors in capturing data into the information systems are particularly vexing since these errors permeate the entire information system(s), affecting every aspect of information use. The direct and indirect consequences of unreliable data did not attract much attention as there were few alternatives to reduce them. Newer technologies, especially Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), are enabling virtual elimination of data entry errors in inventory management. We investigate the effect of accurate data on the performance of supply chains utilizing lean production systems. Our simulation results indicate that time to fulfil a purchase order (cycle time) is significantly reduced by improving the quality of the inventory data. The simulation model we developed will enable us to examine other performance characteristics of a supply chain. We will also investigate the sensitivity of supply chain performance due to changes in the parameters of the model. Title: DESIGN OF A MEDICAL DATABASE TRANSFORMATION ALGORITHM Author(s): Karine Abbas, Christine Verdier and André Flory Abstract: The aim of this article is to create a unique medical record structure from the metabase of any medical record in any care place. The work is divided into two parts : the first step consists in creating a reference medical record model based on a graph structure in which the first level is fixed and the other levels are changeable. The second step is to provide transformation algorithms to translate the legacy relational database (RDB) into the reference model to give a unique medical record structure. In this second step is analysed the correlation between the legacy RDB keys and the classification of the keys into four types of relations: base relation, dependent relation, inheritance relation and composite relation. Title: KEY FACTORS IN LEGACY SYSTEMS MIGRATION - A REAL LIFE CASE Author(s): Teta Stamati, Konstantina Stamati and Drakoulis Martakos Abstract: Although legacy systems migration as a subject area is often overlooked in favour of areas such as new technology developments and strategic planning of information technology, most migration projects are considered ill-fated initiatives and a rate of over 80% of these projects run over budget, frequently with system functionality falling short of contract. Many practitioners consider that the proposed theoretical migration approaches are myopic and do not take into account a number of key factors that make a migration project a really complex initiative. Our position is that throughout the life cycle of a migration process, there are some critical factors that initially play the role of the “drivers” and afterwards they became the factors that hinder (“hinders”) the migration process. We consider these key factors as Critical Success Factors (CSF) that must be carefully considered. Furthermore, these key factors could be either overt or covert factors. In each case, the migration engineers should consider and analyse them very carefully prior to the initiation of the migration process and a well-defined migration methodological plan should be developed. The work presented is based on a real life initiative putting emphasis on the key success factors revealing at the same time the complexity of a migration process. Emphasis is put on the required management view and planning effort, rather than on the mere technological issues. Title: ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND INNOVATION - IMPACT ON THE RESEARCH AGENDA Author(s): Charles Møller Abstract: This paper proposes that ERP-implementation lead to a new post-implementation management challenge: Enterprise Systems Management and Innovation. Enterprise Systems Management and Innovation is a new concept that deals with the management of the enterprise system as a resource, and as a potential for transforming the organization by enabling innovative supply chain processes. The argument is rooted in seven case studies, a survey on ERP adoption and a retrospective analysis on the development of ES. This paper discuses the emerging issues and the implications for management. The paper concludes by outlining the impact on the ERP research agenda. Area 2 - Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems Title: DEVELOPMENT OF SUMMARIES OF CERTAIN PATTERNS IN MULTI-BAND SATELLITE IMAGES Author(s): Hema Nair Abstract: This paper describes a system that is designed and implemented for interpretation of some patterns in multi-band (RGB) satellite images. Patterns such as land, island, water body, river, fire, urban area settlements in remote-sensed images are extracted and summarised in linguistic terms using fuzzy sets. Some elements of supervised classification are introduced to assist in the development of linguistic summaries. A few LANDSAT images are analysed by the system and the resulting summaries of the image patterns are explained. Title: UTILIZATION OF CASE-BASED REASONING IN AUDITING - DETERMINING THE AUDIT FEE Author(s): Robert Zenzerović Abstract: Case-based reasoning represents a method for solving problems and decision making support which is based on the previous business experience. It uses cases from the past to solve new problems. Case can be defined as conceptualized piece of knowledge representing the experience that teaches a lesson fundamental to achieving the goals of the decision maker. Cases usually incorporate input features and output features, where input features represent important attributes of cases that effect decision making (situation part of the case) and output feature which is outcome that depends on the input features (solution part of the case). Case base reasoning functions in a further way: Once, when target case is inputted in the system with its input features system has to retrieve the most similar cases from the case base. After the most similar case is retrieved from the case base it can be used for finding interesting information. The reasoner can then adjust and send a new probe with different features for retrieving of new case, or the system can be designed to make automatic adjustments in solution part of the old case on the base of differences in situation part of the cases, providing the solution for the new case. Many studies tried to explain types and impact of different factors that determine audit fees. Mostly all authors concentrate their research on the impact of following determinants: auditee size, auditee complexity, auditee profitability, ownership control, timing variables, auditor location and auditor size. In paper all mentioned factors are described except auditor size and location since these factors are not significant in Croatian audit service market. All significant audit fee determinants will be appropriately quantified in order to build a case based reasoning model for determining audit fee for smaller and mid sized auditing firms in Croatia but also for the same firms in the other countries too. Title: BUILDING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE VIA CRM BASED ON DATA WAREHOUSE AND DATA MINING Author(s): Jiejun Huang, Wei Cui and Yanbin Yuan Abstract: Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a new business concept, providing a novel approach for managing the relationships between a corporation and its customers towards maximal profitability and sustainability. Data mining and data warehouse are the useful information technologies, which provide powerful means for extracting and utilizing the business information from historical data resources and runtime data flows. This paper reviews the objectives, functionalities, and development trends of CRM, discusses the architecture, data model and development methodologies of CRM systems based on data warehouse and data mining, then outlines the applications of integrated CRM systems in decision making, including business administration, marketing, customer service, customer management, and credit evaluation. Eventually, it describes some problems and challenges for further research. Title: VARIOUS PROCESS WIZARD FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS - USING FUZZY PETRI NETS FOR PROCESS DEFINITION Author(s): Jaroslav Prochazka, Jaroslav Knybel and Cyril Klimes Abstract: The new approach in information system automation is process or workflow management. For unskilled user is important, when the business processes of company are described. Then, according to this description are users led correctly in their work. The business (application) model can be caught in finite state machines and its variations. Petri net can be used for process definition in process wizard. Sometimes unclear state occurs, for its description can be fuzzy logic IF-THEN rules used. We explain what process wizard is, what should contain and outline how it could be implement in IS QI. We also introduce Petri nets with fuzzy approach for process description. Title: DIAGNOSIS OF DEMENTIA AND ITS PATHOLOGIES USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS Author(s): Julie Cowie, Lloyd Oteniya and Richard Coles Abstract: The use of artificial intelligence techniques in medical decision support systems is becoming more commonplace. By incorporating a method to represent expert knowledge, such systems can aid the user in aspects such as disease diagnosis and treatment planning. This paper reports on the first part of a project addressing the diagnosis of individuals with dementia. We discuss two systems: DemNet and PathNet; developed to aid accurate diagnosis both of the presence of dementia, and the pathology of the disease. Title: DECISION SUPPORT ON THE MOVE - MOBILE DECISION MAKING FOR TRIAGE MANAGEMENT Author(s): Julie Cowie and Paul Godley Abstract: This paper describes research investigating ways in which a mobile decision support system might be implemented. Our view is that the mobile decision maker will be better supported if he/she is aware of the Quality of the Data (QoD) used in deriving a decision, and how QoD improves or deteriorates while he/she is on the move. We propose a QoD model that takes into account static and dynamic properties of the mobile decision making environment, uses multicriteria decision analysis to represent the user’s decision model and to derive a single QoD parameter, and investigates the use of powerful graphics to relay information to the user. Title: FREQUENCY CALIBRATIONS WITH CONVENTIONAL TIME INTERVAL COUNTERS VIA GPS TRACEABILITY Author(s): Juan José González de la Rosa, Isidro Lloret, Carlos García Puntonet, Juan Manuel Górriz, Antonio Moreno, Matías Liñán and Victor Pallarés Abstract: Calculation of the uncertainty in traceable frequency calibrations is detailed using low cost instruments, par-tially characterized. Contributions to the standard uncertainty have been obtained under the assumption of uniform probability density function of errors. Short term instability has been studied using non-classical statistics. A thorough study of the noise processes characterization is made with simulated data by means of our variance estimators. The experiment is thought for frequencies close to 1 Hz. Title: SIMULATION MODELLING OF IRON ORE PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT Author(s): Jim E. Everett Abstract: Iron ore is railed several hundred kilometres from open-cut mines inland, to port facilities, then processed to lump and fines products, blended and the lump product re-screened ready for shipment, mainly to Asia. Customers use the ore as principal feed in steel production. Increasing demand and price, especially from China, requires expansion of existing mines and planning of new operations. Expansion planning of the operational logistics, maintaining acceptable product quality, has been greatly helped by simulation modelling described in this paper. Title: A DISTRIBUTED ALGORITHM FOR COALITION FORMATION IN LINEAR PRODUCTION DOMAIN Author(s): Chattrakul Sombattheera and Aditya Ghose Abstract: This paper proposes a coalition formation algorithm for cooperative agents in order to maximize the system's profit. Title: METHOD FOR DRAWING UP A ROAD MAP THAT CONSIDERS THE SYNERGY EFFECT AND RISK FOR IT INVESTMENT Author(s): Tadasuke Nakagawa, Shigeyuki Tani, Masaharu Akatsu and Norihisa Komoda Abstract: IT governance lacks a comprehensive vision of investment in two or more projects. It is necessary to decide the priority levels that maximize the effects under constrained conditions. It is a complex problem, because while sometimes a greater effect can be obtained by introducing two or more measures at the same time, other times the effect of two measures introduced at the same time might not be significant. Although there is a synergy effect when two or more measures are introduced, no method for drawing up an investmentdecision road map has considered that effect. Therefore, we developed one. What a decision-maker must think about when considering the introduction of two or more measures, can be visualized by drawing up a comprehensive road map that satisfies constraint conditions, such as the effectiveness of the measure, budget, time, staff size, order of introduction, and the synergy effect. Road map users can easily reach a consensus because the map, by taking into account the constraint conditions and the investment decisionmaking process, helps them logically explain the order in which the measures should be introduced. Title: A SEMI-AUTOMATED QUALITY ASSURANCE TOOLBOX FOR DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGICAL IMAGING Author(s): Christodoulos Constantinou, Andreas Grondoudis, Andreas Christoforou, Christakis Constantinides and Andreas Lanitis Abstract: Magnetic Resonance (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) and Ultrasound (US) are three of the most commonly used clinical imaging modalities. The aim of this study was to establish a Quality Assurance program for MRI, CT and US scanners. A well-designed quality assurance program is of utmost importance in the clinical setting, because it indicates whether diagnostic imaging modalities meet the minimum criteria of acceptable performance and because it helps determine those scanner parameters that need adjustment in order to ensure optimum performance. Quality assurance programs that rely on manual data collection and analysis are tedious and time consuming and are often abandoned due to the significant workload required for their implementation. In this paper we describe an integrated software system for automating the process of data collection and management in Quality Assurance for diagnostic radiological imaging. The developed system is comprised of two main units: The Image Processing Unit (IPU) and the Data Management Unit (DMU). The IPU is used for analysing images from different diagnostic modalities in order to extract measurements. The IPU is dynamically linked to the DMU so that measurements are transferred directly to the DMU. This process allows the generation of quality assurance reports for all such modalities. Based on the proposed system, it is possible to apply and monitor systematic quality assurance programs for medical imaging equipment, ensuring compliance with international standards. Title: THE USE OF THE NATURAL LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING AGENTS WITH CONCEPTUAL MODELS Author(s): Olegas Vasilecas and Algirdas Laukaitis Abstract: In this paper we present AI agents architecture for user natural language interfaces in data exploration domain. We present an evaluation of an intelligent interface when user tries to explore corporate databases by means of natural language. More specifically, we describe an experiment that evaluates IBM corporation natural language toolbox in the data exploration domain. Unsatisfactory results from that experiment triggered our research to improve user interface with the natural language modality on architecture and algorithm levels. We extend traditional natural language interfaces in data exploration domain in two directions: 1) data conceptual modelling is a keystone for successful intelligent interface and we present our results and arguments for one of the most successful conceptual data models – IBM financial services data model (FSDM), 2) we suggest to use feedforward neural network as concepts indexes in the users natural language interfaces. All presented concepts are realized as the open source project JMining Dialog. Title: KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING USING THE UML PROFILE - ADOPTING THE MODEL-DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE FOR KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Mohd Syazwan Abdullah, Richard Paige, Ian Benest and Chris Kimble Abstract: Knowledge engineering (KE) activities are essential to the process of building intelligent systems; it conceptual modelling is exploited so that the problem-solving techniques used may be understood. This paper discusses platform independent conceptual modelling of a knowledge intensive application, focusing on knowledge-based systems (KBS) in the context of a model-driven architecture (MDA). An extension to the Unified Modeling Language (UML), using its profile extension mechanism, is presented. The profile discussed in this paper has been successfully implemented in the eXecutable Modelling Framework (XMF) – a Meta-Object-Facility (MOF) based UML tool. The Ulcer Clinical Practical Guideline Recommendations demonstrate the use of this profile; the prototype is implemented in the Java Expert System Shell (Jess). Title: INCREMENTAL PROCESSING OF TEMPORAL OBSERVATIONS IN SUPERVISION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DISCRETE-EVENT SYSTEMS Author(s): Gianfranco Lamperti and Marina Zanella Abstract: Observations play a major role in supervision and diagnosis of discrete-event systems (DESs). In a distributed, large-scale setting, the observation of a DES over a time interval is not perceived as a totally-ordered sequence of observable labels but, rather, as a directed acyclic graph, under uncertainty conditions. Problem solving, however, requires generating a surrogate of such a graph, the index space. Furthermore, the observation hypothesized so far has to be integrated at the reception of a new fragment of observation. This translates to the need for computing a new index space every time. Since such a computation is expensive, a naive generation of the index space from scratch at the occurrence of each observation fragment becomes prohibitive in real applications. To cope with this problem, the paper introduces an incremental technique for efficiently modeling and indexing temporal observations of DESs. Title: QUALITY LEARNING OBJETCS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSAL FOR E-LEARNING SYSTEMS Author(s): Erla Morales, Ángela Barrón and Francisco García Abstract: Web development is promoting important advantages for educational area specially e-learning systems. By one side Learning Objects (LOs) aim the possibility to reuse specific information and by the other side they can be interchanged though different context and platforms according to the user’s needs. The possibility to access, reuse and interchange information is a great advantage to our information society but it is not enough. An urgent necessity exists to guarantee the LOs quality content. There exists a plethora of quality criteria to value digital sources but there are only a few suggestions about how to evaluate LOs to structure quality courses. This work proposes a quality learning object management for e-learning systems. Our proposal consists on a system to evaluate LOs as a continued process taking into account quality criteria related to metadata information, especially the educational category, together with a strategy to ensure a continued LOs quality contents. To achieve this, we propose in a first place our own LOs definition to manage them in a uniform way. After that, we suggest to relate LOs metadata information with quality criteria trough an instrument which contains different kind of categories and evaluation criteria. To promote a better reliability results we suggest an evaluation strategy which consider experts and users participation. Title: INTRODUCING INTELLIGENT AGENTS TO OUTSOURCING Author(s): Hemal Kothari, Bernadette Sharp, Luke Ho and Anthony Atkins Abstract: In the last few years, agent technology has significantly emerged as a new paradigm for software developers to solve complex problems. This paper extends the use of multi-agent systems into a new domain of outsourcing. It highlights the various issues associated with outsourcing decision making i.e. the complexity and the risks involved in outsourcing. The paper outlines the HABIO framework which proposes a tri-perspective approach focusing on the organisational, information and business perspective to facilitate the outsourcing decision-making and formulating an effective outsourcing strategy. The main focus of this paper is to describe how agents can assist the experts in their decision to support outsourcing. A call-centre scenario illustrating a 3-layered agent architecture is proposed which aims to capture the strategic, tactical, and communicational layers of outsourcing and supports the experts in their outsourcing decision-making. Title: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR RAMP-UP - APPROACH FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR RAMP-UP IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY Author(s): Sven Thiebus, Ulrich Berger and Ralf Kretzschmann Abstract: Enterprises in the automotive industry are facing new challenges from increasing product diversification, decreasing product life cycle times and permanent need for cost reduction. The ramp-up as linking phase between development phase and production phase has a crucial role for the success of a project. The performance of a ramp-up depends on the maturity of the product and manufacturing processes. Knowledge management is an extraordinary driver for maturity of both product and manufacturing process. The existing solutions for knowledge management show insufficient results. The new approach bases on the cycle of organizational learning. The cycle consists of four phases: socialization, externalization, combination and internalization. The cycle of organizational learning is also known as SECI cycle. It provides opportunities to improve ramp-up performance in the automotive industry. Part of the new approach is a sophisticated concept for a solution using Information Technology as enabler for Knowledge management. Title: SADIM: AN AID SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING DIAGNOSIS USING KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION AND MATCHING TECHNIQUES Author(s): Jamel Kolsi, Lamia Hadrich Belguith,Mansour Mrabet and Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou Abstract: This paper describes an aid system of management engineering diagnosis "Système d’Aide au Diagnostic d’Ingénierie de Management " SADIM, the aim of which is to detect the dysfunctions related to the enterprise management. This system allows the acquisition of knowledge based on textual data (given in French) related to the diagnosis, the matching and the assignment of witness sentences to the key ideas that correspond to them. SADIM can also serve as a part of a decision aid system as it includes carrying out diagnosis which can helps experts and socio-economic management consultants to take decisions that would make enterprises reach the required standards through council interventions. Title: IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES FOR “EQUATION GURU” - A USER FRIENDLY INTELLIGENT ALGEBRA TUTOR Author(s): Senay Kafkas, Zeki Bayram and Huseyin Yaratan Abstract: We describe the implementation strategies of an intelligent algebra tutor, the “Equation Guru” (EG), which is designed to help students learn the concepts of equation solving with one unknown. EG provides a highly interactive and entertaining learning environment through the use of Microsoft Agents. It consists of two main parts. The first is the “Tutorial” part where students guided through the steps of solving equations with one unknown. The second, “Drill and Practice” part gives them a chance to practice their skills in equation solving. In this part, equations are automatically geratated by EG, and presented to the student. EG monitors the student’s performance and adjusts the difficulty level of the equations accordingly. Title: DYNAMIC REPRESENTATION OF INFORMATION FOR A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM Author(s): Thierry Galinho, Michel Coletta, Patrick Person and Frédéric Serin Abstract: This paper presents a system designed to help deciders manage cases of crisis. The system represents, characterises and interprets the dynamic evolution of information describing a given situation and displays the results of its analysis. The core of the system is made up of three multiagent systems (MAS): one MAS for the static and dynamic representation of the information (current situation), the second MAS for dynamically regrouping sets of agents of the former MAS and the upper MAS for matching results between the second MAS and scenarios stored in the persistent memory of the system in order to have a deeper analysis of the situation. The case based reasoning of this last MAS sends its results to the user as a view of the current situation linked to some views of similar situations. In this paper, we will focus on the representation of information MAS. This MAS is dynamic in order to be able to take into account the changes in the description of the information. Current information is represented by a layer of factual agents which is fed by the composite semantic features constituting the atomic data elements of information. The aim of the set of factual agents is both to be a real snapshot of the situation at any time and to model the evolution. Title: DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS BY A META-LEARNING APPROACH BASED ON GRAMMAR EVOLUTION Author(s): Albert Fornells-Herrera, Elisabet Golobardes-Ribé, Ester Bernadó-Mansilla and Joan Martí-Bonmatí Abstract: The incidence of breast cancer varies greatly among countries, but statistics show that every year 720,000 new cases will be diagnosed world-wide. However, a low percentage of women who suffer it can be detected using mammography methods. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new strategies to detect its formation in early stages. Many machine learning techniques have been applied in order to help doctors in the diagnosis decision process, but its definition and application are complex, getting results which are not often the desired. In this article we present an automatic way to build decision support systems by means of the combination of several machine learning techniques using a Meta-learning approach based on Grammar Evolution (MGE). We will study its application over different mammographic datasets to assess the improvement of the results. Title: DISCOVERING THE STABLE CLUSTERS BETWEEN INTERESTINGNESS MEASURES Author(s): Xuan-Hiep Huynh, Fabrice Guillet and Henri Briand Abstract: In this paper, we interested in finding the different aspects existing in data sets via the evaluation of the behavior of interestingness measures. This approach is an important step in the process of post-processing the discovered knowledge in the form of association rules. We used two data sets with different characteristics of each and also investigated in the examination of the two best rules data sets extracted from these two original data sets. Our results are acceptable because of the high quantity of association rules in the data sets, approximately $100000$ rules for post-processing. Furthermore, this approach strongly participates in the domain of knowledge quality research. Title: A FOUNDATION FOR INFORMED NEGOTIATION Author(s): John Debenham and Simeon Simoff Abstract: Approaches to the construction of agents that are to engage in competitive negotiation are often founded on game theory. In such an approach the agents are endowed with utility functions and assumed to be utility optimisers. In practice the utility function is derived in the context of massive uncertainties both in terms of the agent's priorities and of the raw data or information. To address this issue we propose an agent architecture that is founded on information theory, and that manages uncertainty with entropy-based inference. Our negotiating agent engages in multi-issue bilateral negotiation in a dynamic information-rich environment. The agent strives to make informed decisions. The agent may assume that the integrity of some of its information decays with time, and that a negotiation may break down under certain conditions. The agent makes no assumptions about the internals of its opponent --- it focuses only on the signals that it receives. It constructs two probability distributions over the set of all deals. First the probability that its opponent will accept a deal, and second that a deal will prove to be acceptable to it in time. Title: PREDICTING CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS - USING POSSUM, PPOSSUM AND NEURAL NET TECHNIQUES Author(s): Thuy Nguyen Thi Thu and Darryl N. Davis Abstract: Neural Networks are broadly applied in a number of fields such as cognitive science, diagnosis, and forecasting. Medical decision support is one area of increasing research interest. Ongoing collaborations between cardiovascular clinicians and computer science are looking at the application of neural networks (and other data mining techniques) to the area of individual patient diagnosis, based on clinical records (from Hull and Dundee sites). The current research looks to advance initial investigations in a number of ways. Firstly, through a rigorous analysis of the clinical data, using data mining and statistical tools, we hope to be able to extend the usefulness of much of the clinical data set. Problems with the data include differences in attribute presence and use across different sites, and missing values. Secondly we look to advance the classification of referred patients with different outcome through the rigorous use of POSSUM, PPOSSUM and both supervised and unsupervised neural net techniques. Through the use of different classifiers, a better clinical diagnostic support model may be built. Title: PERSONALIZED INCENTIVE PLANS THROUGH EMPLOYEE PROFILING Author(s): Silverio Petruzzellis, Oriana Licchelli, Ignazio Palmisano, Giovanni Semeraro, Valeria Bavaro and Cosimo Palmisano Abstract: Total reward management (TRM) is a holistic practice that interprets the growing need in organizations for involvement and motivation of the workers. It is oriented towards pushing the use of Information Technology in supporting the improvement of both organization and people performances, by understanding employee needs and by designing customized incentives and rewards. Customization is very common in the area of e-commerce, where application of profiling and recommendation techniques makes it possible to deliver personalized recommendations for users that explicitly accept the site to store personal information such as preferences or demographic data. Our work is focused on the application of User Profiling techniques in the Total Reward Management context. In the Team Advisor project we experimented the analogies Customer/Employee, Product, Portfolio/Reward Library and Shop/Employer, in order to provide personalized reward recommendations to line managers. We found that the adoption of a collaborative software platform delivering a preliminary reward plan to the managers fosters collaboration and actively supports the delegation of decision-making. Title: BENEFICIAL SEQUENTIAL COMBINATION OF DATA MINING ALGORITHMS Author(s): Mathias Goller, Markus Humer and Michael Schrefl Abstract: Depending on the goal of an instance of the Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) process, there are instances that require more than a single data mining algorithm to determine a solution. Sequences of data mining algorithms offer room for improvement that are yet unexploited. If it is known that an algorithm is the first of a sequence of algorithms and there will be future runs of other algorithms, the first algorithm can determine intermediate results that the succeeding algorithms need. The anteceding algorithm can also determine helpful statistics for succeeding algorithms. As the anteceding algorithm has to scan the data anyway, computing intermediate results happens as a by-product of computing the anteceding algorithm's result. On the one hand, a succeeding algorithm can save time because several steps of that algorithm have already been pre-computed. On the other hand, additional information about the analysed data can improve the quality of results such as the accuracy of classification, as demonstrated in experiments with synthetical and real data. Title: APPLICATION OF THE ROUGH SET METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS PROJECTS Author(s): Tadeusz A. Grzeszczyk Abstract: Main subject of the present paper is presentation of the concept for application of rough set theory in evaluation of structural funds projects. Author presents scheme of classification algorithms based on rough set approach. This algorithm can be used for the problem of project proposals classification. Title: EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF NON REDUNDANT RULES IN LARGE PATTERN BASES: A BITMAP APPROACH Author(s): François Jacquenet, Christine Largeron and Cédric Udréa Abstract: Knowledge Discovery from Databases has more and more impact nowadays and various tools are now available to extract efficiently (in time and memory space) some knowledge from huge databases. Nevertheless, those systems generally produce some large pattern bases and then the management of these one rapidly becomes untractable. Few works have focused on pattern base management systems and researches on that domain are really new. This paper comes within that context, dealing with a particular class of patterns that is association rules. More precisely, we present the way we have efficiently implemented the search for non redundant rules thanks to a representation of rules in the form of bitmap arrays. Some experiments show that the use of this technique increases dramatically the gain in time and space, allowing us to manage large pattern bases. Title: INTEGRATING FUZZY LOGIC IN ONTOLOGIES Author(s): Silvia Calegari and Davide Ciucci Abstract: Ontologies have proved to be very useful in sharing concepts across applications in an unambiguous way. Nowadays, in ontology-based applications information is often vague and imprecise. This is a well-know problem especially for semantics-based applications, such as e-commerce, knowledge management, web portals, etc. In computer-aided reasoning, the predominant paradigm to manage vague knowledge is fuzzy set theory. This paper presents an enrichment of classical computational ontologies with fuzzy logic to create fuzzy ontologies. So, it is a step towards facing the nuances of natural languages with ontologies. Our proposal is developed in the KAON ontology editor, that allows to handle ontology concepts in an high-level environment. Title: A KNOWLEDGE-BASED REVERSE DESIGN SYSTEM FOR DECLARATIVE SCENE MODELING Author(s): Vassilios Golfinopoulos, Vassilios Stathopoulos, George Miaoulis and Dimitri Plemenos Abstract: Declarative modeling allows the designer to describe a scene without the need to define the geometric properties. The MultiCAD architecture implements the declarative forward design, accepting a declarative description and generating a set of geometric solutions that meet the description. The aim of the presented work is to settle the reverse design process through the RS-MultiCAD component in order to extend MultiCAD declarative conception cycle to an automated iterative process. The RS-MultiCAD receives a selected geometric solution, which is semantically understood, permits the designer to perform geometric and topological modifications on the scene, and results a declarative description which embodies the designer modifications. That declarative description leads to more promising solutions by pruning the initial solution space. Title: AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF NEGATED CONCEPTS IN NARRATIVE CLINICAL REPORTS Author(s): Lior Rokach, Roni Romano and Oded Maimon Abstract: Substantial medical data such as discharge summaries and operative reports are stored in textual form. Databases containing free-text clinical narratives reports often need to be retrieved to find relevant information for clinical and research purposes. Terms that appear in these documents tend to appear in different contexts. The context of negation, a negative finding, is of special importance, since many of the most frequently described findings are those denied by the patient or subsequently “ruled out.” Hence, when searching free-text narratives for patients with a certain medical condition, if negation is not taken into account, many of the documents re-trieved will be irrelevant. In this paper we examine the applicability of machine learning methods for automatic identification of negative context patterns in clinical narratives reports. We suggest two new simple algorithms and compare their performance with standard machine learning techniques such as neural networks and decision trees. The proposed algorithms significantly improve the performance of information retrieval done on medical narratives. Title: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A FUZZY EXPERT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR VENDOR SELECTION - CASE STUDY IN OIEC IRAN(OIL INDUSTERIAL ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION) Author(s): Maryam Ramezani and G. A.Montazer Abstract: Supplier selection and evaluation is a complicated multi objective process with many uncertain factors. Sealed bid evaluation is the most common approach for supplier selection purpose in Iran. In this paper, a fuzzy expert decision support system is developed for solving the vendor selection problem with multiple objectives, in which some of the parameters are fuzzy in nature. Basic important factors considered for supplier selection are price, quality and delivery time. The designed system has been designed and implemented and evaluated in a lead famous company and the results are discussed. Title: COLLABORATIVE FILTERING BASED ON CONTENT ADDRESSING Author(s): Shlomo Berkovsky, Yaniv Eytani and Larry Manevitz Abstract: Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular recommendation techniques. It is based on the assumption that people with similar tastes prefer similar items. One of the major drawbacks of the CF is its limited scalability, as the complexity of the CF grows linearly both with the number of available users and items. This work proposes a new fast variant of the CF employed over multi-dimensional content-addressable space. Our approach heuristically decreases the computational effort required by the CF algorithm by limiting the search process only to potentially relevant users. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is able to generate predictions with high accuracy while significantly improving performance in comparison with the traditional implementation of the CF. Title: SEMI INTERACTIVE METHOD FOR DATA MINING Author(s): Lydia Boudjeloud and François Poulet Abstract: Usual visualization techniques for multidimensional data sets, such as parallel coordinates and scatter-plot matrices, do not scale well to high numbers of dimensions. A common approach to solve this problem is dimensionality selection. We present new semi-interactive method for dimensionality selection to select pertinent dimension subsets without losing information. Our cooperative approach uses automatic algorithms, interactive algorithms and visualization methods: an evolutionary algorithm is used to obtain optimal dimension subsets which represent the original data set without losing information for unsupervised tasks (clustering or outlier detection) using a new validity criterion. A visualization method is used to present the user interactive evolutionary algorithm results and let him actively participate in evolutionary algorithm search with more efficiency resulting in a faster evolutionary algorithm convergence. We have implemented our approach and applied it to real data set to confirm it is effective for supporting the user in the exploration of high dimensional data sets and evaluate the visual data representation. Title: KNOWLEDGE-BASED MODELING AND NATURAL COMPUTING FOR COORDINATION IN PERVASIVE ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Michael Cebulla Abstract: In this paper we start with the assumption that coordination in complex systems can be understood in terms of presence and location of information. We propose a modeling framework which supports an integrated view of these two aspects of coordination (which we call knowledge diffusion). For this sake we employ methods from ontological modeling, modal logics, fuzzy logic and membrane computing. Especially we treat two extreme cases of knowledge diffusion: knowledge processing with extensive semantic support and the exchange of uninterpreted messages. In the first case systems behavior is considered as multi-model transformation where aspects of situations are described by knowledge bases which are manipulated according to transformation rules from membrane computing. In the second case however we exploit the special features of our architecture in order to integrate bio-inspired coordination mechanisms which rely on the exchange of molecules (i.e. uninterpreted messages). Title: A LOAD BALANCING SCHEDULING APPROACH FOR DEDICATED MACHINE CONSTRAINT Author(s): Arthur M. D. Shr, Alan Liu and Peter P. Chen Abstract: The dedicated photolithography machine constraint in semiconductor manufacturing is one of the new issues of photolithography machinery due to natural bias. With this constraint, the wafers passing through each photolithography process have to be processed on the same machine. The purpose of the limitation is to prevent the impact of natural bias. However, many scheduling polices or modeling methods proposed by previous research for the semiconductor manufacturing production did not discuss the dedicated machine constraint. In this paper, we propose the Load Balancing (LB) scheduling approach based on a Resource Schedule and Execution Matrix (RSEM) to tackle this constraint. LB is to schedule each wafer lot at the first photolithography stage to a suitable machine based on the load balancing factors among machines. We describe the algorithm of our proposed LB scheduling approach and RAEM in the paper. We also present an example to demonstrate our approach and the result of the simulations to validate our approach. Title: ONTOLOGY-DRIVEN INFORMATION INTEGRATION - NETWORKED ORGANISATION CONFIGURATION Author(s): Alexander Smirnov, Tatiana Levashova and Nikolay Shilov Abstract: Distributed networks of independent companies (networked organisations) are currently of high interest. This new organisational form provides for flexibility, tolerance, etc. that are necessary in the current market situation characterised by increasing competition and globalisation. Configuration of a networked organisation is a strategic task that requires intelligent decision support and integration of various tasks constituting the configuration problem. Achieving efficient integration of tasks is possible when it is done taking into account semantics. The paper proposes an approach to this problem based on ontology-driven knowledge integration. The knowledge in the approach is presented using formalism of object-oriented constraint networks. Such formalism simplifies problem formulation and interpretation since most of the tasks in the areas of configuration and management are constraint satisfaction tasks. The paper describes the developed approach and the ontological model that is the core of the approach. Application of the developed approach is demonstrated at two levels: (a) at the level of information integration within one company and (b) at the level of information integration across a networked organisation. Title: A LOGIC-BASED APPROACH TO SEMANTIC INFORMATION EXTRACTION Author(s): Massimo Ruffolo and Marco Manna Abstract: Recognizing and extracting meaningful information from unstructured documents, taking into account their semantics, is an important problem in the field of information and knowledge management. In this paper we describe a novel logic-based approach to semantic information extraction, from both HTML pages and flat text documents, implemented in the HiLex system. The approach is founded on a new two-dimensional representation of documents, and heavily exploits DLP+ - an extension of disjunctive logic programming for ontology representation and reasoning, which has been recently implemented on top of the DLV system. Ontologies, representing the semantics of information to be extracted, are encoded in DLP+, while the extraction patterns are expressed using regular expressions and an ad hoc two-dimensional grammar. The execution of DLP+ reasoning modules, encoding the HiLex grammar expressions, yields the actual extraction of information from the input document. Unlike previous systems, which are merely syntactic, HiLex combines both semantic and syntactic knowledge for a powerful information extraction. Title: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT NOVEL APPLICATIONS Author(s): Vasso Stylianou and Andreas Savva Abstract: Knowledge Management (KM) is a process through which an enterprise gathers, organizes, shares, and analyzes the knowledge of individuals and groups across the organization in ways that directly affect performance. Numerous businesses have implemented KM systems in an effort to achieve commercial effectiveness. This paper has collected information about a number of KM systems developed and used by modern businesses. It then presents the development steps leading to the implementation of a Web Content Management System to be used as a Research Management System. This will manage the acquisition, analysis, perseverance and utilization of knowledge regarding various research projects - including proposed projects, ongoing projects and finalized projects - and research-related emails. Title: COALITION FORMATION WITH UNCERTAIN TASK EXECUTION Author(s): Hosam Hanna Abstract: We address the problem of coalition formation in environments where tasks' executions are uncertain. While previous works provide good solutions for coalition formation problem, they do not take into account the uncertain task execution and they do not take into account the effects of forming a coalition on the future possible formations. In environments where task execution is uncertain, an agent can't be sure whether he will be able to execute all the subtasks that are allocated to him or he will ignore some of them. That is why forming coalition to maximize the real reward is an unrealizable operation. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to form coalition with uncertain task execution. We view the formation of a coalition to execute a task as (1) a decision to make and (2) as an uncertain source of gain. We associate then the allocation of a task to a coalition with an expected reward that represents what agents expect to gain by forming this coalition for executing this task. Also, the agents' aim is to form coalition to maximize the expected reward instead of the real reward. To reach this objective, we formalize the coalition formation problem by a Markov Decision Process (MDP). We consider the situation where decisions are taken by one agent that develops and solves the corresponding MDP. An optimal coalition formation which maximizes the agents' expected reward is then obtained. Title: TOWARDS A COMPLETE DATA MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK BASED ON INTELLIGENT AGENTS Author(s): Iulian Alexandru Negroiu, Octavian Paul Rotaru and Mircea Petrescu Abstract: Applications are more and more complex and the volume of information has an exponentially growth nowadays. In these conditions a huge amount of information needs to be processed while the processing time and power should be kept to a minimum. The increasing amount of data transferred over the Internet and other networks, which are open to a big number of clients, was reflected in the growth of the distributed information systems. Also, there are a multitude of servers distributed among remote locations, which are serving the same purposes. In this cases, traditional models of distributed computing, caching, concurrency control etc. are becoming less appropriate in overcoming the actual efficiency problems and in supporting the development of complex applications. We believe that intelligent and autonomous agents can solve this problem. In order to have a solution for the above problems, this paper opens the research for complete data management intelligent agents based framework. The possible areas that can be handled using agents are identified and discussed together with the required agents and agencies, while attempting to provide a bird’s eye architectural view of the proposed framework. Title: A MULTI-AGENT ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE SELF-TRAINING Author(s): Mourad Ennaji, Hadhoum Bouhachour and Patrick Gravé Abstract: This article is the result of an interdisciplinary meeting between sociologists and didacticiens on the one hand and data processing specialists on the other hand. To develop the theoretical and methodological principles of the design of a training environment, by putting the needs and the difficulties of the student at the center of the design process and data-processing modeling, constitutes the common action of these two research laboratories within the framework of this collaboration. To design a virtual tutor called “teaching agent” in a system of remote formation implies the implementation of a flexible and adaptive system. We propose an multi-agent multi-layer architecture able to initiate the training and to manage a teaching and an individualized follow-up. Title: DATA MINING AS A NEW PARADIGM FOR BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN DATABASE MARKETING PROJECTS Author(s): Filipe Pinto, Pedro Gago and Manuel Filipe Santos Abstract: One of the most interesting business management challenges is to integrate automation and systematisation processes in order to get insights or trends for decision support activities. Actually, information technologies provide not only the ability to collect and register in databases many kinds of signals (relevant segments of information) external to the organization, but also the capacity to use them in different ways at different organizational levels. Database Marketing (DBM) refers to the use of database technology to support marketing activities in order to establish and maintain a profitable interaction with clients. Currently DBM is usually approached using classical statistical inference, which may fail when complex, multi-dimensional, and incomplete data is available. An alternative is to apply Data Mining (DM) techniques in a process called Knowledge Discovery from Databases (KDD), which aims at automatic pattern extraction. This will help marketers to address customer needs based on what they know about customers, rather than a mass generalization of their characteristics. This paper exploits a systematic approach for the use of DM techniques as a new paradigm in Business Intelligence (BI) in DBM projects, considering analytical and marketing aspects. A cross-table is proposed to associate DBM activities to the appropriate DM techniques. This framework guides the development of DBM projects, contributing to improve their efficacy and efficiency. Title: MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL TOOLS Author(s): Nishant Kumar, Jan Vanthienen, Jan De Beer and Marie-Francine Moens Abstract: We propose a generic methodology for the evaluation of Text Mining/Search and Information Retrieval tools based on their functional conformity to a predefined set of functional requirements prioritized by distinguishable user profiles. The methodology is worked out and applied within the context of a research project concerning the assessment of intelligent exploitation tools for unstructured information sources in the police domain. We present the general setting of our work, give an overview of our evaluation approach, and discuss our methodology for testing in greater detail. These kinds of evaluations are particularly useful for both (potential)purchasers of exploitation tools, given the high investments in time and money required in becoming proficient in their use, and developers who aim at producing better quality software products. Title: AROUND THE EMPIRICAL AND INTENTIONAL REFERENCES OF AGENT-BASED SIMULATION IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Author(s): Nuno David and Helder Coelho Abstract: The difficulties in constructing and analyzing simulations of social theory and phenomena, even the most simplified, have been underlined in the literature. The experimental reference of simulation remains ambiguous, insofar as the logic of its method turns computer programs into something more than a tool in the social sciences, defining them as the experimental object itself. The goal of this paper is to construct a methodological perspective that is able to conciliate the formal and empirical logic of program verification in computer science, with the interpretative and multiparadigmatic logic of the social sciences. We demonstrate that the method of simulation implies at least two distinct types of program verifications, which we call empirical and intentional verification. By demonstrating that it is the intentional verification of programs that is contingent upon both the behaviors of the programs and the social phenomena, we clarify the experimental reference of simulation. Title: LOGICRUNCHER - A LOGISTICS PLANNING AND SCHEDULING DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR EMERGING EMS AND 3PL BUSINESS PRACTICES Author(s): Raymund J. Lin, Jack Huang, Norman Sadeh-Koniecpol and Benjamin Tsai Abstract: LogiCruncher is a dynamic logistics planning and scheduling module developed to support emerging third party logistics practices. Given information about inventory profiles for different product types at different locations, a set of transportation assets as well as a variety of quotes and contractual arrangements with logistics service providers, the system is capable of generating or revising transportation plans and schedules that meet changing customer requirements. These requirements are expressed in the form of demands for delivering different types of SKUs in different quantities to different locations. The system is capable of capturing a rich set of domain constraints and costs. It can be used to support the development and dynamic revision of solutions as well as to support requests for quotes from prospective customers. This includes support for “whatif” analysis through the creation and manipulation of solutions in different contexts, each corresponding to possibly different sets of assumptions. This paper provides an overview of LogiCruncher and summarizes results of initial evaluation experiments. Title: AN EXTENDABLE JAVA FRAMEWORK FOR INSTANCE SIMILARITIES IN ONTOLOGIES Author(s): Mark Hefke, Valentin Zacharias, Andreas Abecker, Qingli Wang, Ernst Biesalski and Marco Breiter Abstract: Ontologies, Similarity, Knowledge Management, Case-Based Reasoning Title: SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SKILL-PROFILE MATCHING IN ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Author(s): Ernst Biesalski and Andreas Abecker Abstract: At DaimlerChrysler’s truck plant in Wörth / Rhein, we are currently implementing a comprehensive IT solution for integrated and synergistic pro¬cesses in personnel development. In this paper, we sketch some onto¬logy-based software modules – as well as their interdependencies and synergies – which support streamlined and integrated, comprehensive personnel-development processes. A central element in the software architecture is ontology-based similarity assessment for skill-profile matching which is exemplarily discussed for software-supported project staffing. Title: SOURCE SENSITIVE ARGUMENTATION SYSTEM Author(s): Chee Fon Chang, Peter Harvey and Aditya Ghose Abstract: There exist many approaches to agent-based conflict resolution. Of particular interest are approaches which adopt argumentation as their underlying conflict resolution machinery. In most argumentation systems, the argument source plays a minimal role. We feel that ignoring this important attribute of human argumentation process reduces the capabilities of current argumentation systems. This paper focuses on the importance information source in argumentation extending this to the notion of credibility of agents and the effect on agent decision making during argumentation. Title: SELECTING AND STRUCTURING SEMANTIC RESOURCES TO SUPPORT SMES KNOWLEDGE COMMUNITIES Author(s): António Lucas Soares, Manuel Moreira da Silva and Dora Simões Abstract: Knowledge management intrinsically involves communication and information sharing, which can be strongly affected by the context in which it is viewed and interpreted. This situation gets worst when complex domains are considered, as it is the case of the Construction Industry domains. The development of ontologies to unify and to put into context the different concepts and terms of the sometimes rather traditional and locally coloured construction industry domains is a necessary step to avoid misinterpretations and inefficient communication. The KNOW-CONSTRUCT project decided, as an approach to this task, to re-use, as far as possible, existing ontologies, classification systems and other semantic resources in order to develop a system that may come to contribute to standards and to the integration, management and reuse of the area specific knowledge via a common knowledge base in order to consolidate and provide access to integrated knowledge, making community emergent knowledge a significant added value. It aims at developing a methodology of common Construction Industry Knowledge (CIK) representation applicable to large sets of SMEs in the construction industry as a basis for the establishment of a knowledge community. Title: FUZZY INTERVAL NUMBER (FIN) TECHNIQUES FOR FUZZY INTERVAL NUMBER (FIN) TECHNIQUES FOR Author(s): Catherine Marinagi, Theodoros Alevizos, Vassilis G. Kaburlasos and Christos Skourlas Abstract: A new method to handle problems of Information Retrieval (IR) and related applications is proposed. The method is based on Fuzzy Interval Numbers (FINs) introduced in fuzzy system applications. Definition, interpretation and a computation algorithm of FINs are presented. The frame of use FINs in IR is given. An experiment showing the anticipated importance of these techniques in Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) is presented. Title: LOCATING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH AUTOMATED ORGANIZATIONAL CARTOGRAPHY [AUTOCART] Author(s): Mounir Kehal, Sandrine Crener and Patrice Sargenti Abstract: The Post-Globalization aeon has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behaviour has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit- and even conceptualising on tacit- Knowledge Management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the Intellectual Capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, hence potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualised. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources. Title: GEOSPATIAL SEMANTIC QUERY BASED ON CASE-BASED REASONING SYSTEM Author(s): Kay Khaing Win Abstract: In today’s fast-growing information age, currently available methods for finding and using information on the Web are often insufficient. Today’s retrieval methods are typically limited to keywords searches or sub-string matches, therefore, users may often miss critical information when searching the web. After reviewing the real world Semantic Web, additional research is needed on the Geospatial Semantic Web. We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be used by anyone who wants to use. In this paper, we implement a framework of geospatial semantic query based on case based reasoning system that contributes to the development of geospatial semantic web. It is important to establish a geospatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing geospatial semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries. Title: SOME SPECIAL HEURISTICS FOR DISCRETE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS Author(s): Boris Melnikov, Alexey Radionov and Viktor Gumayunov Abstract: In previous paper we considered some heuristic methods of decision-making for various discrete optimization problems; all these heuristics should be considered as the combination of them and form a common multi-heuristic approach to the various problem. And in this paper, we begin to consider local heuristics, which are different for different problems. At first, we consider two problems of minimization: for nondeterministic finite automata and for disjunctive normal forms. Our approach can be considered as an alternative to the methods of linear programming, multi-agent optimization, and neuronets. Title: A METHOD BASED ON THE ONTOLOGY OF LANGUAGE TO SUPPORT CLUSTERS’ INTERPRETATION Author(s): Wagner Francisco Castilho, Gentil José de Lucena Filho, Hércules Antonio do Prado and Edilson Ferneda Abstract: The clusters’ analysis process comprises two broad activities: generation of a clusters set and extracting meaning from these clusters. The first one refers, typically, to the application of algorithms to estimate high density areas separated by lower density areas from the observed space. In the second one the analyst goes inside the clusters trying to figure out some sense from them. The whole activity is strongly dependent from previous knowledge and shows a considerable burden of subjectivity. In previous works, some alternatives were proposed to take into account the background knowledge when creating the clusters. However, the subjectivity of the interpretation activity continues to be a challenge to create knowledge from clusters’ analysis. Beyond a soundness domain knowledge demanded from the specialists, the consolidation of a con-sensual interpretation will depend from conversational competence for which no support has been provided. In this paper we propose a method for cluster interpretation based on the categories existing in the Ontology of Language, aiming to reduce the gap between a cluster configuration and the effective extraction of mean-ing from them. Area 3 - Information Systems Analysis and Specification Title: KEY-PROBLEM AND GOAL DRIVEN REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING - WHICH COMPLEMENTARITIES FOR MANUFACTURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? Author(s): Virginie Goepp and François Kiefer Abstract: The development of manufacturing information systems involves various stakeholders, who are not specialists for information systems. Therefore the stakes of the methods for such projects are to provide models which are understandable for all people involved, and conceptual enough to support the alignment between business, information system and manufacturing strategies of the company. The use of problem based models, stemmed from dialectical approaches, is efficient for the understand ability and a coarse strategic analysis, but it is limited through the project size. At the opposite, goal driven requirements engineering approaches enable to tackle large projects and detailed strategic analysis, but they are limited because of the difficulty to deal with the fuzzy concept of a goal. So, it would be interesting to gain from these two approaches. This paper first presents a problem driven approach for manufacturing information systems. It consists in a key-problem framework and a set of steps to exploit it. The assumption made is to base requirement elicitation on the problems encountered by the stakeholders. Then its matching with goal driven requirements engineering is shown and the complementarities between these two approaches are drawn and further discussed. Title: TOWARDS A CONTEXTUAL MODEL-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT APPROACH FOR WEB SERVICES Author(s): Zakaria Maamar, Karim Baïna, Djamal Benslimane, Nanjangud C. Narendra and Mehdi Chelbabi Abstract: This paper discusses how we develop and apply a contextual model-driven approach to Web services. A Web service is defined using WSDL, posted on an UDDI registry, and invoked through a SOAP request. To deploy adaptable Web services, we consider the environment wherein these Web services operate. This environment's features are made available in a structure, which we refer to as context. By adopting a contextual model-driven approach, we aim at developing contextual specifications of Web services. To this end ContextUML, an extension of UML through UMLProfile, permits developing such contextual specifications and is discussed in this paper. Title: STRUCTURED APPROACH FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF INFORMATION SERVICES INTO THE PRIVATE SOCIAL SOLIDARITY INSTITUTIONS Author(s): Alexandra Queirós and Nelson Rocha Abstract: The paper presents an overview of a methodology for the introduction of information technologies into the social solidarity institutions, helping to overcome a complex set of barriers. The methodology is based on a set of good practices (intend to be valid for different type of institutions but considering the specific needs of each one) and an electronic social record with a generic information model able to embrace all type of information necessary to the institutions, but also adjustable to answer to the requirements of each institution, service or care provider. Title: A PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE WITH NDT - THE SYSTEM TO MEASURE THE GRADE OF HANDICAP Author(s): Maria J. Escalona, Dario Villadiego, Javier J. Gutiérrez, Jesus Torres and Manuel Mejías Abstract: The necessity of applying technological advances in the medicine environment is an unquestionable fact. In the last years, important applications of new technologies in medical systems to help doctors or to make easier the evaluation, the treatment or, even, the relation between the doctor and the patient have been presented. However, there is sometimes an important gap in the development of these new systems. The specific and complex features of the medical environment often complicate the communication between doctors, when they require a new system, and experts in computer science. This work introduces a methodological proposal to specify and analyze software systems. Its main goal is to make easier the communication between final users and customers and the development team. The report presents our own practical experience by the application of this methodology in a real system to measure the grade of handicap in patients following laws in Spain. Title: SUPPORTING METHODS OF GENERATING ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS FROM A NORMAL SCENARIO Author(s): Atsushi Ohnishi Abstract: A generation method of alternative scenarios using a normal scenario written with the scenario language SLAF is proposed. This method includes (1) generation of alternative plans and (2) generation of alternative scenario by a user’s selection of these plans. Our method enables to lessen the omission of the possible alternative scenarios in the early stages of development and contributes to improve the correctness and effectiveness of the software development. Title: A FEATURE COMPUTATION TREE MODEL TO SPECIFY REQUIREMENTS AND REUSE Author(s): Ella E. Roubtsova and Serguei A. Roubtsov Abstract: A large subset of requirements to complex systems, services and product lines is specified traditionally by hierarchical structures of features. Features are usually gathered and represented in the form of a feature tree. However, a feature tree is a structural model, it represents mainly composition and specialization relations between features-requirements and does not provide the possibility to specify requirements in form of ordering relations defined on functional features. For specification of ordering relations on features use case scenarios are traditionally used. Because use cases comprise isolated scenarios or sequences of features, they can be inconsistent and even contradict each other and the feature tree. Moreover, some use cases defining relations on features may be incomplete. To support consistent specification of requirements, we suggest to accompany a feature tree model by a feature computation tree model. The couple of such related feature tree models provides the basis for the method of consistency checks of requirements that we propose. It introduces a united view on the system's behaviour at the step of requirement specification and facilitates specification of forbidden sequences and construction complete sequences from incomplete ones. It allows designers to precisely specify the desired reuse and to find out that a certain sort of reuse is not possible. Understanding already at the step of requirements engineering that a subsystem cannot be reused without modification saves effort and money spent for development. The proposed method and models are explained by a case study of design a system for production of electronic cards. Title: A FORMAL ARCHITECTURE-CENTRIC MODEL-DRIVEN APPROACH FOR THE AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF GRID APPLICATIONS Author(s): David Manset, Hervé Verjus, Richard McClatchey and Flavio Oquendo Abstract: This paper discusses the concept of model-driven software engineering applied to the Grid application domain. As an extension to this concept, the approach described here, attempts to combine both formal architecture-centric and model-driven paradigms. It is a commonly recognized statement that Grid systems have seldom been designed using formal techniques although from past experience such techniques have shown advantages. This paper advocates a formal engineering approach to Grid system developments in an effort to contribute to the rigorous development of Grids software architectures. This approach addresses quality of service and crossplatform developments by applying the model-driven paradigm to a formal architecture-centric engineering method. This combination benefits from a formal semantic description power in addition to model-based transformations. The result of such a novel combined concept promotes the re-use of design models and facilitates developments in Grid computing. Title: MEDIS – A WEB BASED HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM - IMPLEMENTING INTEGRATED SECURE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD Author(s): Snezana Sucurovic Abstract: In many countries there are initiatives for building an integrated patient-centric electronic health record. There are also initiatives for transnational integrations. These growing demands for integration result from the fact that it can provide improving healthcare treatments and reducing the cost of healthcare services. While in European highly developed countries computerisation in healthcare sector begun in the 70’s and reached a high level, some developing countries, and Serbia and Montenegro among them, have started computerisation recently. This is why MEDIS (MEDical Information System) is aimed at integration itself from the very beginning instead of integration of heterogeneous information systems on a middle layer or using HL7 protocol. MEDIS has been implemented as a federated system where the central server hosts basic EHCR information about a patient, and clinical servers contain their own part of patients’ EHCR. Clinical servers are connected to a central server through the Internet and the system can be accessed through a browser from a place that has an Internet connection. A user also has to have a public key certificate to be able to login. As health data are highly sensible, MEDIS implements solutions from recent years, such as Public Key Infrastructure and Privilege Management Infrastructure, SSL and Web Service security as well as pluggable, XML based access control policies. Title: A VIEWPOINTS MODELING FRAMEWORK BASED ON EPISTEMIC LOGIC Author(s): Min Jiang and Guoqin Wu Abstract: RE can be considered a process of knowledge representation, knowledge acquirement and knowledge analysis. Viewpoints approach hopes that stakeholders in a complex system should describe it from their own perspectives and then generate a more complete requirement specification. Just because of this characteristic, several stakeholders maybe describe a same problem. These overlapping requirements are the source of inconsistency. This paper puts forward requirement modeling framework based on problem-domain and viewpoints. We interpret and reason it with epistemic logic in order to achieve the following goals: 1) to make requirements more structured; 2) to help stakeholders formally discover those inconsistent overlapping requirements. Title: TOWARDS A SUITE OF METRICS FOR BUSINESS PROCESS MODELS IN BPMN Author(s): Elvira Rolón, Francisco Ruiz, Félix García and Mario Piattini Abstract: In this paper we present a suite of metrics for the evaluation of business process models using BPMN notation. Our proposal is based on the FMESP framework, which was developed in order to integrate the modeling and measurement of software processes. FMESP includes a set of metrics to provide the quantitative basis necessary to know the maintainability of the software process models. This previously existent proposal has been used in this work as the starting point to define a set of metrics for the evaluation of the complexity of business process models defined with BPMN. To achieve this goal, the first step has been to adopt the metrics of FMESP, which can be directly used to measure business process models, and then, new metrics have been defined according to the particular aspects of the business processes and BPMN notation. Title: FLEXIBLE REALIZATION OF BUSINESS PROCESSES USING EXISTING SERVICES Author(s): Jelena Zdravkovic and Martin Henkel Abstract: When realizing executable business process models, the assumption of a transparent integration with existing software services is highly unrealistic. In most situations, business process specifications collide with specific properties of existing services. In this paper we propose an approach for relaxation of the business process specification to enable flexible integration between the process and existing services. The approach is based on the notion of visibility, which allows a categorized relaxation of the process specification by not requiring every process state to be distinguished after the process is realised with existing services. The categories of visibility presented in this paper are applied by indicating flexible elements in the process design phase. The presented approach stimulates the alignment between business processes and existing services, facilitating a larger scale of transparent process realisations. Title: REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION FOR DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS: A DATA QUALITY APPROACH Author(s): Alejandro Vaisman Abstract: Today, information and timely decisions are crucial for an organization’s success. A Decision Support System is a software tool that provides information allowing its users to take decisions timely and cost-effectively. This is highly conditioned by the quality of the data involved. In this paper we show that conventional techniques for requirement elicitation cannot be used in Decision Support Systems, and propose DSS-METRIQ, a methodology aimed at providing a single data quality-based procedure for complete and consistent elicitation of functional (queries) and non functional (data quality) requirements. In addition, we present a method based on QFD (Quality Function Deployment), that, using the information collected during requirements elicitation, ranks the operational data sources from which data is obtained, according to their degree of satisfaction of user information requirements. Title: FLEXIBLE COMPLETION OF WORKFLOW ACTIVITIES Author(s): Georg Peters and Roger Tagg Abstract: Over the last twenty years business process management has become a central approach to maintaining the competitiveness of companies. However the automation of the business processes utilizing workflow systems have often led to over-structured solutions that lack of the flexibility inherent in the underlying business model. Therefore there is a need to develop flexible workflow management systems that easily and quickly adapt to dynamically changing business models and processes. Lin and Orlowska [2005] introduced partly complete-able activities as one way to make workflow systems more flexible. In our paper, we extend the concept of partly complete-able activities by recognizing separate probability and fuzzy dimensions and by introducing process memory. Title: A SUPPORTING TOOL TO IDENTIFY BOTH SATISFIED REQUIREMENTS AND TOLERANT THREATS FOR A JAVA MOBILE CODE APPLICATION Author(s): Haruhiko Kaiya, Kouta Sasaki, Chikanobu Ogawa and Kenji Kaijiri Abstract: A mobile code application can be easily integrated by using existing software components, thus it is one of the promising ways to develop software efficiently. However, using a mobile code application sometimes follows harmful effects on valuable resources of users because malicious codes in such an application can be activated. Therefore, users of mobile code applications have to identify both benefits and risks by the applications and to decide which benefits should be gotten and which risks should be tolerated. However, there is no method or tool to support such things. In this paper, we introduce a tool to support such users. By using this tool, the users can identify security related functions embedded in each mobile code automatically. The users can also relate these functions to each benefit or risk. By defining a security policy for mobile codes, some functions are disabled, thus some benefits and risks are also disabled. By adjusting the security policy, the users can make decision about the benefits and the risks. Title: DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR RESOLVING PRICE DISCOUNT COLLISIONS Author(s): Henrik Stormer Abstract: Managing Discounts is an essential task for all business applications. Discounts are used for turning prospects to new customers and for customer retention. However, if more than one discount type can be applied, a collision may arise. An example is a promotional discount and a discount for a customer. The system has to decide which discount should be applied, eventually also combinations are possible. A bad collision strategy can lead to annoyed customers as they do not get the price that they think is correct. This paper examines three different business applications designed for small and medium sized companies and shows the applied strategies for resolving discount collisions. Afterwards, a new way of defining discounts, called discount tree (dTree) is introduced. It is shown that with dTrees, collisions can be detected directly when the discounts are defined. A detected collision can then resolved by the administrator. Title: MANAGING THE KNOWLEDGE NEEDED TO SUPPORT AN ELECTRONIC PERSONAL ASSISTANT - AN END-USER FRIENDLY GRAPHICAL ONTOLOGY EDITING TOOL Author(s): Matthias Einig, Roger Tagg and Georg Peters Abstract: Today’s administrative worker has to handle huge amounts of data of different types, from many different sources and using multiple software tools. The effort in organizing and retrieving this data is often disproportionate to the actual benefit gained. Ontology-based categorization of knowledge has been advocated to provide a common infrastructure to the tools. However, most current software for building and maintaining ontologies is too complicated for the average end-user. This paper describes a prototype ontology editor application that provides an easily understandable and usable interface. Title: A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS PATTERNS SPECIFICATION Author(s): Ricardo Raminhos, Marta Pantoquilho, João Araújo and Ana Moreira Abstract: Analysis Patterns are indicative analysis solutions for a recurrent problem. Many patterns have been proposed and are successfully used. The writing of a pattern follows a specific structure that can be tailored to each author’s needs. We have developed an analysis pattern template that solves some previously identified gaps on other approaches. This paper focuses on the definition of a systematic process to guide developers to fill that analysis pattern template. The definition of this process will contribute to the unification of the analysis patterns representation, and thus for their understandability and completeness. Title: ONTOLOGY CONSTRUCTION IN AN ENTERPRISE CONTEXT: COMPARING AND EVALUATING TWO APPROACHES Author(s): Eva Blomqvist, Annika Öhgren and Kurt Sandkuhl Abstract: Structuring enterprise information and supporting knowledge management is a growing application field for enterprise ontologies. Research work presented in this paper focuses on construction of enterprise ontologies. In an experiment, two methods for ontology construction were used in parallel when developing an ontology for a company in automotive supplier industries. One method is based on automatic ontology construction exploiting ontology patterns, the other method is a manual approach based on cookbook-like instructions. The paper compares and evaluates the methods and their results. For ontology evaluation, selected approaches were combined including comparison of general characteristics, evaluation by ontology engineers, and evaluation by domain experts. The main conclusion is that the compared methods have different strengths and an integration of both, developed ontologies and used methods, should be investigated. Title: TOWARDS PRACTICAL TOOLS FOR MINING ABSTRACTIONS IN UML MODELS Author(s): Michel Dao, Marianne Huchard, Mohamed Rouane Hacène, Cyril Roume and Petko Valtchev Abstract: We present an experience of applying an extension of Formal Concept Analysis to UML class model restructuring. The Relational Concept Analysis (RCA) mines potentially useful abstractions from UML classes, attributes, operations and associations and therefore outscores competing restructuring techniques which usually focus exclusively on classes. Nevertheless, the complexity and the size of the RCA output require interactive tools to assist the human designers in comprehending the corresponding class model. We discuss the benefits of using RCA-based techniques in the light of an initial set of tools that were devised to ease the navigation and the visual analysis of the results of the restructuring process. Title: A PROJECT MANAGEMENT MODEL TO A DISTRIBUTED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT Author(s): Lúcia Norie Matsueda Enami, Tania Fatima Calvi Tait and Elisa Hatsue Moriya Huzita Abstract: This article presents a project management model to a distributed environment that will be integrated to the DiSEN (Distributed Software Engineering Environment). The model purpose is to supply to the interested ones in the software project the pertinent information to each one and also treat the aspects of the team member’s physical distribution in a distributed environment. It was based in PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) Model and CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) and the issues treated by the Project Management Model include cultural differences between the members, distribution of knowledge, the use of a tool to facilitate the communication between members, standardization of software project management documents and motivating people geographically dispersed. Title: VALIDATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS USING PETRI NETS Author(s): Asghar Bokhari and Skip Poehlman Abstract: Enterprise information systems are complex software that are frequently required to adapt to rapid changes in business environments. Although there have been some successes, the research literature is full of horror stories due to failure of these systems. Current software engineering practice requires verification/validation of complex systems at the design stage. Unified Modeling Language (UML), which lacks formal semantics, is the defacto standard for designing the majority of information systems and that means dynamic analysis techniques cannot be used for validation of UML models. Consequently there has been a considerable interest among researchers in formalization of UML models. Early proposals translate UML state diagrams into some kind of mathematical language and input this textual description to a model checker. In this paper we present a rule-based technique to convert UML state diagrams to Object Coloured Petri (OCP) nets. A strong mathematical foundation, more amenable to verification and validation procedures, alongwith a graphical representation, makes Petri nets ideally suitable for dynamic analysis of UML modelled information systems. Title: APPLYING BLOCK ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN WORKFLOW MODELING Author(s): Lucinéia Heloisa Thom and Cirano Iochpe Abstract: In an early work we have identified a set of organizational –oriented workflow patterns based on organizational structure aspects (e.g., centralization on decision-making and coordination mechanisms). Relying on this work, we verified that the use of workflow patterns based on structural aspects of the organization may improve both productivity and accuracy of workflow design and, hence, the resulting workflow process will better represent the business process of the real world as it is executed by the organization. In this paper we discuss a set of business (sub-)process types that were identified by different authors and are a result of a classification of business process “pieces” (e.g., logistic, financial, decision, information, material, notification and both unidirectional and bi-directional communication). After integrating the classification work found in the literature the business process types that we are calling “workflow block activity patterns” were described in a common language (UML 2.0) and through some study cases we tried to find out whether they are frequently reused during business as well as workflow process modeling. The “matching exercise” was carried out not only to validate the set of patterns but also, eventually to identify some new ones. The results showed that the patterns are frequently identified not only in workflow components but also in workflow applications. We believe they can be reused to improve both the quality and the performance of the design phase in a workflow project. Within this context we also present an inside of how the block activity patterns can effectively be used in workflow modeling. Title: THE CONCEPT OF ETHICS IN ELECTRONIC QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Author(s): Nouhad J. Rizk and Elias M. Choueiri Abstract: As a key form of communications technology, the internet has created new methodological approaches for social science research. This study focuses on moral issues created by information technology for qualitative research environments. The primary concern is with ethical analysis and legal issues and how both are applied to, although not limited to, issues of privacy, intellectual property, information access, interpersonal communication, moral and civil rights, responsibility and liability, and professional codes as well as some social implications of technology. The Internet is now exposed to a growing number and a wider variety of threats and vulnerabilities. Moreover, Internet-based research raises several ethical questions and introduces new ethical challenges, especially pertaining to privacy, informed consent and confidentiality and anonymity. This study aims to highlight the main ethical issues in electronic qualitative research and to provide some guidance for those doing or reviewing such research. While recognizing the reservations held about strict ethical guidelines for electronic qualitative research, this study opens the door for further debate of these issues so that the social science research community can move towards the adoption of agreed standards of good practice. In addition, it suggests that empirical research is desirable in order to quantify the actual risks to participants in electronic qualitative studies. Title: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR IT/IS BASED ASSET MANAGEMENT Author(s): Abrar Haider and Andy Koronios Abstract: Engineering assets managing businesses use a variety of information and communication technologies for process efficiency, control, and management. Nevertheless, key to all these is the effective measurement of the IT/IS utilisation for existing process such that the underperforming areas are highlighted, and corrective actions are taken to achieve optimal use of IS/IT. There are a variety of performance measurement mechanisms available that stimulate improvement efforts, in so doing helping businesses to translate perceived business strategy into action. However, these approaches are mostly aimed at high level evaluation of an organisation’s performance; whereas the stochastic nature and ever expanding scope of asset management processes demands asset managers to have a comprehensive view of asset lifecycle and the interacting business areas. This paper proposes an evaluation framework for IT/IS based asset management in an engineering enterprise. The paper firstly seeks to present a critique of the asset management paradigm. It then discusses available performance measurement mechanisms and develops a case for the constituents of an effective asset management measurement framework that provides detailed indicators for controls actions required to achieve optimal process efficiency through the use of IT/IS. The paper, then, presents an integrated asset performance measurement framework that not only is derived from business strategy, but informs strategy formulation through a closed loop learning cycle that encompasses asset management lifecycle. Title: A REUSE-BASED REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION PROCESS Author(s): Sangim Ahn and Kiwon Chong Abstract: Establishing good requirements is important in an initial phase of software development not to make over time and cost of projects and low quality of software products. In the context of Requirements Engineering (RE), reuse is effective in particular because it can help to define requirement explicitly and to anticipate requirement change. We propose a reuse-based process approach to elicit potential requirements from various stakeholders. To achieve our goal, we present (1) analyzing gaps between requirements map of collected and reused in the repository and (2) potential requirements elicitation process with these maps. The former is composed of classifying styles of requirements, requirements representation formalism with use cases, and gap analysis using generic gap types. The latter is sequential procedures to look for potential requirements in addition to Plus Minus Interests(PMI) method. We illustrate our approach through a credit system case study. Title: THE VOCABULARY ONTOLOGY ENGINEERING - FOR THE SEMANTIC MODELLING OF HOME SERVICES Author(s): Jarmo Kalaoja, Julia Kantorovitch, Sara Carro, José María Miranda, Álvaro Ramos and Jorge Parra Abstract: With great advance in information technology and broadband networks, the interconnected networked home devices are becoming increasingly popular. Number of heterogeneous networked devices and services which belong to the traditionally separated functional islands such as PC (i.e. Internet), mobile, CE broadcasting, and home automation, not working together can be found in our today’s home. Merging of these devices and services would offer home individual residents user-friendly, intelligent, and meaningful interfaces to handle home information and services. The semantic ontology based modelling of home services can enable interoperability of heterogeneous services. The ontology may facilitate clear description on how far each device is suitable for different kinds of information and different interaction demands. This paper is presenting an analysis on the kind of vocabulary ontologies necessary in different functional domains to cope with heterogeneity of service descriptions. The ontology based rich representation of services will facilitate an efficient service discovery, integration and composition. Title: AN ALGORITHM FOR BUILDING INFORMATION SYSTEM’S ONTOLOGIES Author(s): Mohamed Mhiri, Sana Chabaane, Achraf Mtibaa and Faïez Gargouri Abstract: Current applications' modelling becomes increasingly complex. Indeed, it requires a hard work to study the particular studied field in order to determine its main concepts and their relationships. The conceptual representations (CR) results of the modelling of such applications can contain structural and semantic errors which are not detectable by current CASE. The solution that we propose is to associate an ontology, for the studied field, as a help to the designers during IS modelling steps. Building such information system’s ontologies require the use of an approach allowing the determination of the concepts and the relationships between these concepts. Using ontologies makes it possible to ensure conceptual representations' semantic coherence for a given field. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for building an information system’s ontology based on the comparison between the concepts and using a set of semantic relationships. Title: BRIDGING THE LANGUAGE-ACTION PERSPECTIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL SEMIOTICS IN SDBC Author(s): Boris Shishkov, Jan L. G. Dietz and Kecheng Liu Abstract: The SDBC approach addresses the actual problem of business-software alignment through the identification of re-usable business process models and their mapping to software specification models. In such an alignment, it is crucial to adequately grasp all essential business aspects and properly reflect them in modeling the functionality of the software application-to-be. In achieving such a business process modeling foundation, SDBC relies on the theories of LAP and OS: OS allows for an adequate consideration of all essential semantic aspects in conducting a business process modeling, while LAP is capable of grasping pragmatics on top of that; therefore a LAP-OS-driven business process modeling foundation is claimed to be useful. However, combining LAP and OS is not a trivial task and needs to be based on an adequate study. Such a study has been initiated during the development of SDBC. In the current paper, we further elaborate on our (SDBC-driven) views on how LAP and OS could be appropriately combined for the purpose of a sound business process modeling that is to found a further specification of software. Title: INTEROPERABLITY REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION, VALIDATION AND SOLUTIONS MODELLING Author(s): Sobah Abbas Petersen, Frank Lillehagen and Maria Anastasiou Abstract: This paper describes a methodology and a model-based approach for supporting the requirements elicitation and validation work in the ATHENA project. Numerous interoperability requirements have been gathered by four industrial partners and these requirements are validated against interoperability issues. The process of obtaining requirements from industrial users and developing solutions for them involves several communities such as the users, stakeholders and developers. A model-based methodology and approach are proposed to support the analysis of the requirements and for incorporating the different perspectives and views that are desired by everyone. An example from the telecommunications sector is used to illustrate the methodology and a matrix-based validation approach is supported using a model developed in the Metis modelling environment. Title: OBJECT NORMALIZATION AS THE CONTRIBUTION TO THE AREA OF FORMAL METHODS OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DATABASE DESIGN Author(s): Jan Vraný, Zdenek Struska and Vojtech Merunka Abstract: In the article there is described an overview of current status in the area of formal technique of object database design. It is discussed there, why relational design techniques as normalization, decomposition and synthesis are not able to be easy used in object databases. The article informs with various proposals of object normal forms and it brings own authors evaluation and an example of object normalization. Title: EVOLUTION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR MULTI-DIMENSIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Nesrine Yahiaoui, Bruno Traverson and Nicole Levy Abstract: Because Information Systems are today tightly-coupled with enterprise activities, adaptability requirement on software is becoming essential. The framework we have developed aims to keep synchronized multiple descriptions of the same system in case of evolution. Its foundations are based on RM-ODP viewpoints and meta-modeling technology. A prototype tool to support the framework has been developed as an EMF/Eclipse plug-in. Title: UNDERSTANDING B SPECIFICATIONS WITH UML CLASS DIAGRAM AND OCL CONSTRAINTS Author(s): Bruno Tatibouët and Isabelle Jacques Abstract: B is a formal method (and a specification language) which enables the automatic generation of an executable code through a succession of refinements stemming from an abstract specification. There are two current industrial tools (Clearsy's Atelier B\footnote{http://www.clearsy.com}, B-Core B Toolkit\footnote{http://www.b-core.com}) which provide support for all the development process (type-checking facilities, automatic and interactive proof support, ...). A B specification requires a certain knowledge of mathematical notations (Classical logic and sets) as well as specific terminology (generalized substitutions, B keywords) which may in all likelihood leave a non-specialist of the B notation in the dark. To address this problem, we will extract graphic elements from B specification in an effort to render it more understandable. In a previous work, these visual elements are illustrated in a UML class diagram. These visual elements being insufficient they are completed by OCL constraints allowing to present the invariant and the operations of a B abstract machine. Title: ARGUMENT-BASED APPROACHES IN PRIORITIZED CONFLICTING SECURITY POLICIES Author(s): Salem Benferhat and Rania El Baida Abstract: Information security system is an important problem in many domains. Therefore, it is very important to define security policies to restrict access to pieces of information in order to guarantee security properties, i.e. confidentiality, integrity and availability requirements. The joint handling of confidentiality, integrity and availability properties raises the problem of potential conflicts. The objective of this paper is to propose tools, based on the argumentation reasoning, for handling conflicts in prioritized security policies. Title: CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONALS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS – CEPIS MODEL Author(s): Helena Dulce Campos and Luis Amaral Abstract: On the area of Information Systems Technology (IST) there is a multiplicity of competences and knowledge. In order the professionals may carry them out with success and great advantage, the existence of a structured and standardized framework that could be used as a reference for any organization, is needed. Parallel to this problematic there still exists the acknowledgement of the impossibility of a technological life without ethics. So, a Code of Ethics for Professionals of Information Systems - CEPIS it will be proposed. Title: ENABLING OR DISABLING WITH OLD SPECIFICATIONS - A NEW INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON OLD SPECIFICATIONS Author(s): Raija Halonen Abstract: This research concentrates on the development of an information system that was based on previously made specifications. We study the influence of before-made specifications and discuss the difficulties in adopting them. In our case we had several universities involved in the development project and the aim was to implement a joint information system to be used by student affairs officials and students in universities. Implementing information systems by several organisations is highly dependent on collaboration between the organisations. We discuss how the collaboration was managed in our case and show what the role of previous specifications was. We conclude that despite the specifications, the information system was finalised. Title: DEONTIC PROTOCOL MODELLING - MODELLING BUSINESS RULES WITH STATE MACHINES Author(s): Ashley McNeile and Nicholas Simons Abstract: State machines can be used as a means of specifying the behaviour of objects in a system by describing their event protocols, this being the relationships between the states that the object may adopt and the ability of the object to respond to events of different types presented to it. Suitable choice of semantics for the state machines used to describe protocols allow multiple machines to be composed in parallel, in the manner of Hoare’s CSP, in the description of the behaviour of a single object. We describe an extension to this approach whereby different machines in the composition of a single object have different deontic semantics; covering necessary behaviour, encouraged behaviour and discouraged behaviour. This provides a language that has the expressive power to model the way software interacts with the domain in which it is embedded to encourage or discourage behaviours of the domain. Title: USER AUTONOMY IN REQUIREMENTS CHANGING SUPPORTED BY ORGANIZATIONAL SEMIOTICS AND TAILORING Author(s): Carlos Alberto Cocozza Simoni, Maria Cecilia Calani Baranauskas and Rodrigo Bonacin Abstract: Nowadays, organizations are impacted with changes from several sources, such as: process reengineering, searching for continuous quality improvement of products and processes, globalization, and competitors. Literature points out that we still have a gap between the dynamic of the system maintenance and changes in the organizational processes. To cover this gap we consider the use of practices from Organisational Semiotics and Tailoring, that allow a deep understanding of the organizational context and the technical system embedded in it, and Tailoring, proposes and suggests us how to provide autonomy to users in dealing with changes in computer systems. With this theoretical referential we present in this paper a case study developed in our University to explore and extend an existing approach to provide more autonomy to end users in changing their computer applications, according to the evolution and changes in their business requirements. Title: VERIFYING THE VALUE OF OBJECTIVE MEASURES - A PROPOSAL FOR A SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF MEASURES Author(s): Harald Kjellin Abstract: The results of work in any section of an enterprise should preferably be described in a way that makes the results suited for benchmarking with other sections of the enterprise. The same goes for individual work results. Results are easily compared if they are measured according to some numerical standard. Numerical measures can be generalized and standardized until they can be considered as having a high degree of “reusability”. There are several types of enterprise models that include the use of reusable “soft” numerical values. With “soft” numerical values I refer to the type of values that cannot be directly measured in relation to objective facts but are artificially constructed measures that includes some kind of subjective estimation for calculating the value. Another requirement on such measures is that it should be possible to use them for comparing performance between individuals, or between units of an organization, or between organizations. These measures can, for instance, be used for customer appreciation of their relationships with the organization, as is often recommended in the method called “Balanced Scorecards” or they can be used when giving students numerical values as credits (points) for passing university courses. A summary of informal evaluations is presented. The evaluations concern how “soft” measures have been implemented in organizations. The results of the evaluations show that objective values based on facts can be combined with subjective estimations in a way that makes them less vulnerable to people manipulating the measures and less vulnerable to the subjectivity of superiors when estimating the quality of the results. Title: CONFIGURING REFERENCE MODELS - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR TRANSACTION PROCESSING AND DECISION SUPPORT Author(s): Ralf Knackstedt, Christian Janiesch and Tobias Rieke Abstract: Reference models are of normative, universal nature and provide a solution schema for specific problems by depicting best or common-practice approaches. The configuration of these reference models has been a field of research in the past. However, the integrative configuration of different reference models or respectively reference models serving multiple purposes lacks of applicable methods. In practice this is a common problem as the simultaneous implementation of an enterprise resource planning system and a management information system shows. We provide a method that allows the integrative configuration of conceptual models for transaction processing and decision support by integrating meta models for modeling languages. In addition, we exemplarily show its application to extend an existing reference model. Title: A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUPPORT OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES Author(s): Arnaud Lewandowski and Grégory Bourguin Abstract: Software development is a cooperative activity, since it implies many actors. We focus on CSCW integrated global environments. Many studies in this field have already shown, for a long time, that a ‘good’ cooperative environment should be able to take into account the emergent needs of the users, and should be adaptable. Of course, such properties should also be found in environments supporting software development. However, our study of some existing platforms supporting software development cooperative activities points out their lacks in terms of tailorability and cooperative support. Eclipse is one of these broadly used platforms. But even if it presents some shortcomings, its underlying framework offers some features particularly interesting for our purpose. Upon results previously obtained in the CSCW domain, we propose to extend the Eclipse platform, in order to offer a new support for software development by creating a cooperative context for the activities supported in Eclipse by each integrated plug-in. Title: DOMAIN MODELING WITH OBJECT-PROCESS METHODOLOGY Author(s): Arnon Sturm, Dov Dori and Onn Shehory Abstract: Domain engineering can simplify the development of software systems in specific domains. During domain analysis, the first step of domain engineering, the domain is modeled in a reusable manner. Most domain analysis approaches suffer from low accessibility, limited expressiveness, and weak formality. In this paper we utilize the application-based domain modelling (ADOM) approach and apply it to the Object-Process Methodology (OPM) modelling language. We do that by extending Object-Process Methodology (OPM) to support domain analysis. We also performed an experiment to verify that the proposed extension improves the model quality compared to quality arrived at without the extension. Our experimental results show that, when presented with a set of requirements, subjects that used OPM with the domain analysis extension arrived at a system model which is better than the system model arrived at by subjects that used OPM alone. Title: AN XML-BASED LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFICATION AND COMPOSITION OF ASPECTUAL CONCERNS Author(s): Elisabete Soeiro, Isabel Sofia Brito and Ana Moreira Abstract: Separation of concerns refers to the ability of identifying, encapsulating and manipulating parts of software that are crucial to a particular purpose (Dijkstra, 1976). Traditional software development methods were developed with this principle in mind. However, certain broadly-scoped properties are difficult to modularize and keep separated during the lifecycle, producing tangled representations that are difficult to understand and to evolve. Aspect-oriented software development aims at addressing those crosscutting concerns, known as aspects, by providing means for their systematic identification, separation, representation and composition. This paper focuses on the representation and composition activities, by proposing an XML-based language to specify and compose concerns at the requirements level. An illustration of the proposed approach to an example supported by a tool is presented. Title: EB3TG: A TOOL SYNTHESIZING RELATIONAL DATABASE TRANSACTIONS FROM EB3 ATTRIBUTE DEFINITIONS Author(s): Frédéric Gervais, Panawé Batanado, Marc Frappier and Régine Laleau Abstract: EB3 is a formal language for specifying information systems (IS). In EB3, the sequences of events accepted by the system are described with a process algebra; they represent the valid trace of the IS. Entity type and association attributes are computed by means of recursive functions defined on the valid traces of the system. In this paper, we present EB3TG, a tool that synthesizes Java programs that execute relational database transactions which correspond to EB3 attribute definitions. Title: AN ARCHITECTURE-CENTRIC APPROACH FOR MANAGING THE EVOLUTION OF EAI SERVICES-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE Author(s): Frédéric Pourraz, Hervé Verjus and Flavio Oquendo Abstract: The development of big software applications (like EAI solution) is oriented toward the interoperation of existing software components (like COTS and legacy systems). This tendency is accompanied by a certain number of drawbacks for which classical approaches in software composition cannot be applied and fail. COTS-based systems are built in ad-hoc manner and it is not possible to reason on them no more it is possible to demonstrate if such systems satisfy important properties like Quality Of Service and Quality Attributes. The recent works issued in web field allow the definition and the use of complex web service architecture. Languages such as WSFL, XLANG and BPEL4WS support these architectures called Services Oriented Architectures. However, these languages do not have any formal foundation. One cannot reason on such architectures expressed using such languages: properties cannot be expressed and the system dynamic evolution is not supported. On the other hand, software architecture domain aims at providing formal languages for the description of software systems allowing to check properties (formal analysis) and to reason about software architecture models. The paper proposes an approach that consists in formalizing, deploying and evolving EAI architectures. For that purpose, the ArchWare environment and engineering languages (especially the ArchWare formal ADL, based on the π-calculus) and accompanied tools are used. The paper will also present our approach consisting in refining an abstract architecture to an executable and services-oriented one. Title: INFORMATION-CENTRIC VS. STORAGE/DATA-CENTRIC SYSTEMS Author(s): Charles Milligan, Steven Halladay and Deren Hansen Abstract: It is essential to recognise that information (i.e., the meaning and value that must be extracted from data for a business to run) is very different from the data itself. Information must be managed using different processes and tools than those used in data management. The current notion of Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) is really only about making Systems Managed Storage work universally and does not relate to information management at all. However, recent developments of new technologies have potential to open a new paradigm in extracting, organizing and managing the meaning and value from data sources that can allow processes and decision systems to take a quantum leap in effectiveness. The networked structure of a graph database combined with concept modelling will foster this shift. Title: SECURITY THREATS TO DIGITAL TELEVISION PLATFORM AND SERVICE DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Jarkko Holappa and Reijo Savola Abstract: Digital convergence is introducing more diverse digital television services. The return channel, which enables interactive television, is a key to this development and may be considered the most vulnerable element of the terminal device in terms of information security. Accordingly, its protection from threats brought about by Internet use, such as malicious programs, is of the essence. Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) is one of the most important technologies enabling interactive television. The information security threats related to it are examined from the viewpoint of the service developer. Threat analysis presented in this paper is carried out in Finnish companies that include digital-TV broadcasters, MHP-platform developers, service developers and telecom operators. Title: SEMANTIC ALIGNMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES Author(s): Saartje Brockmans, Marc Ehrig, Agnes Koschmider, Andreas Oberweis and Rudi Studer Abstract: This paper presents a method for semantically aligning business processes. We provide a representation of Petri nets in the standard ontology language OWL DL, to semantically enrich the business processes. On top of this, we propose a technique for semantically aligning business processes to support inter-organizational business collaboration. This semantic alignment is improved by a background ontology. Therefore, we propose a specific UML Profile, which allows to visually model this background ontology. The different parts of our proposal, which reduces communication efforts and solves interconnectivity problems, are discussed in detail. Title: FORMALISATION OF A FUNCTIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Author(s): Víctor M. Gulías, Carlos Abalde, Laura M. Castro and Carlos Varela Abstract: This work shows a first approximation to the formalisation of a risk management information system. It is based on our experience in the development of a large, scalable and reliable client/server risk management information system. This system was developed using the distributed functional language Erlang for describing the domain logic. Using a functional language for this task is very useful to face the challenge of formalising such a complex system. This kind of formal work is the first step to applying powerful software verification techniques to reinforce a real system's reliability. Title: BUSINESS RULES ELICITATION IN THE PROCESS OF ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Olegas Vasilecas and Diana Bugaite Abstract: Events modelling in the process of business rules based information systems development and their importance are discussed in this paper. The concepts of a rule and an event are defined in different levels (business system, information system and software system) of abstraction. According to the made definitions of business event, event in information system and software event the modelling abstraction levels are extended with rules and event modelling facilities and their propagation into lower levels of enterprise system. Since ontology represents the real-world domain knowledge and events as well as business rules making a specific part of all domain knowledge, it is suggesting using an ontology for business rules and events elicitation. Title: IWISE: A FRAMEWORK FOR PROVIDING DISTRIBUTED PROCESS VISIBILITY USING AN EVENT-BASED PROCESS MODELLING APPROACH Author(s): Claire Costello, Weston Fleming, Owen Molloy, Gerard Lyons and James Duggan Abstract: Distributed business processes such as supply chain processes execute across heterogeneous systems and company boundaries. This research aims to provide an event-based process model to describe business processes spanning disparate enterprise systems. This model will be generic enough to support processes from multiple industry domains. In addition, this paper introduces the iWISE framework as a light-weight process diagnostic tool. The iWISE architecture uses the process model described to provide business process performance monitoring capabilities. Title: BUSINESS PROCESS DESIGN BASED ON COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION Author(s): Joseph Barjis and Isaac Barjis Abstract: The easiest way that people describe their roles in an organization or the way that members of an organization make promises and commitments to fulfill a task is through communication and interaction. In such a communication language is used as a tool or facilitator of action when a customer requests a service and the supplier promises to provide such a service. In this paper we introduce a language-action based methodology for designing business processes for the Department of University Housing at Georgia Southern University planning to acquire a new information system for managing, supporting and improving the “process of rooms assignment” to some 4000 students. As stated, the methodology is based on language-action perspective and therefore we have used the business transaction concept for mining atomic business processes. Each business transaction identifies an essential activity and reveals the actors and their roles as an initiator or executor of the transaction. Since the transaction concept is used as a conceptual basis, the methodology is complemented with Petri net graphical notations in order to construct businesses process models of the department of housing. Title: A NEW PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY FOR JAVA MESSAGE SERVICE SYSTEM Author(s): Xiangfeng Guo, Xiaoning Ding, Hua Zhong and Jing Li Abstract: Well suited to the loosely coupled nature of distributed interaction, message oriented middleware has been applied in many distributed application fields. To most of these applications, the need to transmit messages with reliability is necessary. Efficiently transmitting messages is a key feature of message oriented middleware. Due to the necessary persistence facilities, the performance of transmitting is subject greatly to the persistence action. The Openness of Java platform has made the systems conforming to Java Message Service Specification supported widely. In these applications, many consumers get messages periodically. We bring forward a new efficient strategy using different persistence methods with different kinds of messages, which improves system performance greatly. The strategy also utilizes daemon threads to reduce its influence to the system. The strategy has been implemented in our Java Message Service conformed system, ONCEAS MQ. Title: A NEW PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOSYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATIONS Author(s): Akito Kiriyama, Yuji Nakagawa, Tadao Takaoka and Zhiqi Tu Abstract: We propose in this paper a new public-key crypto-system, called the non-linear knapsack cryptosystem. The security of this system is based on the NP-completeness of the non-linear knapsack problem. We extend the system into secret sharing and group authentication. That is, an encrypted message can be decrypted only when all members of a group agree to do so. The other is to allow group authentication/access control. That is, when the verifier challenges the prover with encrypted messages with public keys for several groups, the prover can prove he belongs to those groups using the secret keys for them. In our system group authentication can be done in a batch-processing manner, not one-by-one. Group authentication can be used for access control as well. Some experimental results on group authentication are given, which demonstrate the efficiency of our system. Title: DESIGN OF REAL-TIME SYSTEMS BY SYSTEMATIC TRANSFORMATION OF UML/RT MODELS INTO SIMPLE TIMED PROCESS ALGEBRA SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS Author(s): Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki, Manuel Icidro Capel Tuñon and Juan Antonio Holgado Terriza Abstract: The systematic translation from a UML/RT model into CSP+T specifications, proposed in a previous paper, may give a way to use jointly UML and CSP in a unified, practical and rigorous software development method for real-time systems. We present here a systematic transformation method to derive a correct system specification in terms of CSP+T from a semi-formal system requirement specification (UML-RT), by applying a set of transformation rules which give a formal semantics to the semi-formal analysis entities of UML/RT, and thus open up the possibility of verifying a software system design that also includes real-time constraints. As to show the applicability of the approach, a correct design of a real-time system is obtained by following the process of development proposed here. Title: USING ASPECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IN REAL-TIME EMBEDDED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE - A REVIEW OF SCHEDULING, RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND SYNCHRONIZATION Author(s): Pericles Leng Cheng and George Angelos Papadopoulos Abstract: Timeliness and criticality of a process are the two main concerns when designing real-time systems. In addition to that embedded systems are bounded by limited resources. To achieve timeliness and conform to the criticality issues of various processes while at the same time using a minimal amount or resources, real-time embedded systems use different techniques such as task scheduling, resource management and task synchronization. All of these techniques involve a number of the modules of the system which makes the use of Aspect-Oriented Software Development imperative. AOSD is a programming technique which uses the notion of join points to capture specific locations in code execution and then use advices to insert new code. This paper examines existing work in the development of schedulers, resource allocation agents and synchronization techniques using Aspect-Oriented Software Development in real-time systems and more specifically in embedded systems. An analysis of the existing research is used to describe the advantages of using AOSD over conventional OOP methods and to identify areas where further research may be required. Title: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN IN A LARGE-SCALE SOFTWARE PROJECT: THE CASE OF TRANSITION TO AGILE DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Yael Dubinsky, Orit Hazzan, David Talby and Arie Keren Abstract: Agile software development methods mainly aim at increasing software quality by fostering customer collaboration and performing exhaustive testing. The introduction of Extreme Programming (XP) – the most common agile software development method – into an organization is accompanied with conceptual and organizational changes. These changes range from daily-life changes (e.g., sitting together and maintaining an informative project environment) and continue with changes on the management level (e.g., meeting and listening to the customer during the whole process and the concept of the whole team which means that all role holders are part of the team). This paper examines the process of transition to an agile development process in a large-scale software project in the Israeli Air Force as it is perceived from the system analysis and design perspective. Specifically, the project specifications of the agile team are compared with those of a team who continues working according to the previous heavyweight method during the first half year of transition. Size and complexity measures are used as the basis of the comparison. In addition to the inspection of the specifications, the change in the role of the system analysts, as the system analysts conceive of it, is examined. Title: BUSINESS PROCESS VISUALIZATION - USE CASES, CHALLENGES, SOLUTIONS Author(s): Stefanie Rinderle, Ralph Bobrik, Manfred Reichert and Thomas Bauer Abstract: The proper visualization and monitoring of their (ongoing) business processes is crucial for any enterprise. Thus a broad spectrum of processes has to be visualized ranging from simple, short-running processes to complex long-running ones (consisting of up to hundreds of activities). In any case, users shall be able to quickly understand the logic behind a process and to get a quick overview of related tasks. One practical problem arises when different fragments of a business process are scattered over several systems where they are often modeled using different process meta models (e.g., High--Level Petri Nets). The challenge is to find an integrated and user-friendly visualization for these business processes. In this paper we discover use cases relevant in this context. Since existing graph layout approaches have focused on general graph drawing so far we further develop a specific approach for layouting business process graphs. The work presented in this paper is embedded within a larger project on the visualization of automotive processes. Title: HYBRID MODELING USING I* AND AGENTSPEAK(L) AGENTS IN AGENT ORIENTED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Author(s): Aniruddha Dasgupta, Farzad Salim, Aneesh Krishna and Aditya K. Ghose Abstract: In this paper we use i* which is a semi-formal modelling framework to model agent based applications. We then describe how we execute these models into AgentSpeak(L) agents to form the essential components of a multi-agent system. We show that by making changes to the i* model we can generate different executable multi-agent systems. We also describe reverse mapping rules to see how changes to agents in the multi-agent system gets reflected in i* model. This co-evolution of two models offers a novel approach for configuring and prototyping agent based systems. Title: ON IMPLEMENTING INTEROPERABLE AND FLEXIBLE SOFTWARE EVOLUTION ACTIVITIES Author(s): Mourad Bouneffa, Henri Basson and Y. Maweed Abstract: In this paper we present an approach for assistance at software evolution based on an integrated model of representation of the various software artefacts. This model founded on the typed and attributed graphs as well as a representation of these graphs using GXL (eXtensible Graph Language) a language for structuring hyperdocuments. The hyperdocuments GXL are used to facilitate the interoperability between tools intended to represent and handle various aspects of the software evolution. We also use the graph rewriting systems for a simple and flexible implementation of mechanisms required for reasoning by software evolution management. Our approach has been applied to several applications; it is illustrated here on change impact management of applications developed according to multi-tiered architecture Java J2EE and the architecture recovery of these applications. Title: A PRODUCT ORIENTED MODELLING CONCEPT - HOLONS FOR SYSTEMS SYNCHRONISATION AND INTEROPERABILITY Author(s): Salah Baïna, Hervé Panetto and Khalid Benali Abstract: Throughout product lifecycle coordination needs to be established between reality in the physical world (physical view) and the virtual world handled by manufacturing information systems (informational view). This paper presents the “Holon” modelling concept as a means for the synchronisation of both physical view and informational views. Afterwards, we show haw the concept of holon can play a major role in ensuring interoperability in the enterprise context. Title: TOWARDS A RIGOROUS PROCESS MODELING WITH SPEM Author(s): Benoit Combemale, Xavier Crégut, Alain Caplain and Bernard Coulette Abstract: Modeling software process is a good way to improve development and thus quality of resulting applications. The OMG proposes the SPEM metamodel to describe software processes. SPEM is a MOF instance and a UML profile. Its concepts are described through class diagrams. Unfortunately, it lacks a formal description of its semantics that makes it hard to use. So, we propose a specialization of SPEM that clarifies it and we use OCL to formally express constraints on the SPEM metamodel and on the process model. This specialization has been used to model a UML based process called MACAO that focuses on user/system interactions. Title: METHOD FOR USER ORIENTED MODELLING OF DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEMS Author(s): Lars Burmester and Matthias Goeken Abstract: The paper describes a method for data warehouse development. One critical success factor of data warehouse development is determining information requirements. Hence, the method focuses on gathering of requirements and information needs of the users first. An extended data warehouse architecture and a technique for decomposition of the system serve as a developing framework. On the one hand this framework is used to define releases (builds) of the system, which is indispensable for an incremental development process. On the other hand it defines intermediate and final work products (artifacts) that are produced and used during further development stages. Starting with information requirements elicitation, each increment is realized through a series of data models which successively are transformed from conceptual to logical level. These logical data models are then used for implementation as well as for the modelling of ETL processes. Title: CPN BASED COMPONENT ADAPTATION Author(s): Yoshiyuki Shinkawa Abstract: One of the major activities in component based software development is to identify the adaptable components to the given requirements. We usually compare requirement specifications with the component specifications, in order to evaluate the equality between them. However, there could be several differences between those specifications, e.g. granularity, expression forms, viewpoints, or the level of detail, which make the component evaluation difficult. In addition, recent object oriented approaches require many kinds of models to express software functionality, which make the comparison of the specification complicated. For rigorous component evaluation, it is desirable to use concise and simple expression forms of specifications, which can be used commonly between requirements and components. This paper presents a formal evaluation technique for component adaptation. In order to relieve the granularity difference, the concept of a virtual component is introduced, which is the reusable unit of this approach. A virtual component is a set of components that can acts as single component. In order to express requirements and components commonly and rigorously, algebraic specification and Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) are used. Algebraic specification provides the theoretical foundation of this technique, while CPNs help us to use it intuitively. Title: INFORMATION ASSURANCE ASSET MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE USING XML FOR SYSTEM VULNERABILITY Author(s): Namho Yoo and Hyeong-Ah Choi Abstract: This paper suggests an XML-based IA asset management architecture for system vulnerability. Once an information assurance vulnerability notice is given for a system, it is important for reducing massive system engineering efforts for IA asset management. When systems are updated by security patch for mitigating system vulnerability, asset management based on vulnerability update and request is trivial, in order to increase accuracy, efficiency and effectiveness of software processes. By employing XML technology, we can achieve seamless and efficient asset management between heterogeneous system format as well as data formats in analysing and exchanging the pertinent information for information assurance vulnerability. Thus, when a system is updated to improve system vulnerability, the proposed XML-based IA asset management architecture. Then, an executable architecture for implementation to verify the proposed scheme and testing environment is presented to mitigate vulnerable systems for sustained system. Title: A SOA-BASED SYSTEM INTERFACE CONTROL FOR E-GOVERNMENT Author(s): Namho Yoo and Hyeong-Ah Choi Abstract: In this paper, a SOA-based system approach is presented for system interface control in sustained systems. Once a system is completed developed, it goes into a sustained phase supported by many interfaces. As new technologies develop, updating and maintaining such systems require non-trivial efforts. A clear pre-requisite before the deployment of a new system is to clarify the influence of changes on other systems connected through interfaces. However, as each sustained system manages its own information separately, integrating relevant information among the interfaced systems is a major hurdle to build SOA in E-Gov. Therefore, the XML technology is applied to support system interface control toward SOA using step-by-step approach in E-Government. In particular, I focus on messaging interface issues in Health Level Seven typically used in medical information system and propose SOA framework cube and a scheme to represent message information that can be used for the decision support of interface impact between sustained systems. Title: APPLYING SOFTWARE FACTORIES TO PERVASIVE SYSTEMS: A PLATFORM SPECIFIC FRAMEWORK Author(s): Javier Muñoz and Vicente Pelechano Abstract: The raise of the number and complexity of pervasive systems is a fact. This kind of systems involves the integration of physical devices and software components in order to provide services to the inhabitants of an environment. Current techniques for developing pervasive systems provide low-level abstraction primitives which makes difficult the construction of large systems. Software Factories and the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) are two important trends in the software engineering field that can provide sensible benefits in the development of pervasive systems. In this paper, we present an approach for building a Software Factory for pervasive systems, focusing in the definition of a product line for this kind of systems. We introduce a software architecture for pervasive systems, which is supported by a software framework implemented using the OSGi technology. Then, we integrate the framework into the MDA standard defining the framework metamodel and providing tool support for the automatic code generation. Title: GRADUAL MODELING OF INFORMATION SYSTEM - MODEL OF METHOD EXPRESSED AS TRANSITIONS BETWEEN CONCEPTS Author(s): Marek Pícka and Robert Pergl Abstract: The objective of this paper is to show a new way of depicting information systems‘ models of design methods. New terms of the method are created by sequential transformations from the existing terms. The model of elements‘ transformation is an instance of this model. It depicts the process of constructing given information system Title: INCREASING THE VALUE OF PROCESS MODELLING Author(s): John Krogstie, Vibeke Dalberg and Siri Moe Jensen Abstract: This paper presents an approach supporting efforts to increase the value gained from enterprise modelling activities in an organisation, both on a project and on an organisational level. The main objective of the approach is to facilitate awareness of, communication about, and coordination of modelling initiatives between stakeholders and within and across projects, over time. The first version of the approach as a normative process model is presented and discussed in the context of case projects and activities, and we conclude that although work remains both on sophistication of the approach and on validation of its general applicability and value, our results so far show that it addresses recognised challenges in a useful way Title: INTRODUCING A UML PROFILE FOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Author(s): Nancy Alexopoulou, A. Tsadimas, M. Nikolaidou, A. Dais and D. Anagnostopoulos Abstract: Distributed system configuration consists of distributed application component placement and underlying network design, thus is a complex process dealing with interrelated issues. A four-stage methodology has been proposed in order to effectively explore configuration problems. A common metamodel for distributed system representation in all configuration stages is thus required, so that unclear dependencies between discrete stages can be easily identified. This model should also be easily adopted by autonomous software tools used for the automation of discrete configuration stages and for the efficient development of system specifications by designers. We propose such a metamodel using UML 2.0. More specifically, we introduce a UML 2.0 profile facilitating distributed system configuration process. In this profile, different UML 2.0 diagrams are integrated and properly extended, in order to model all aspects of the distributed system configuration process. Stereotypes proved to provide an efficient extension mechanism as no metamodel extensions were needed. This profile can also be used within the Rational Modeler platform. Title: UML-BASED BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (BPR-UML) APPLIED TO IT OUTSOURCING Author(s): Edumilis Maria Méndez, Luis Eduardo Mendoza, María A. Pérez and Anna C. Grimán Abstract: Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is one of the current trends used by organizations to face global market pressures. BPR provides firms with an analysis of their internal processes with the view to offering them customized solutions which are focused on their goals. In addition, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) can be used: 1) as a tool for new processes defined by reengineering, allowing Information Technology experts to perform the business process involving that know-how; and 2) as part of a BPR, to reorient its implementation regarding quality levels and client satisfaction. This paper presents a methodological proposal merging the BPR methodology proposed by Jacobson (1994) with Rational Unified Process (RUP). It also describes how this proposal can be applied in a BPR for IT Outsourcing in order to improve efficiency and quality levels in the corresponding business processes, specifically, the Printing Outsourcing Service (POS). This methodological proposal ensures traceability between the models proposed for the business and the features that the technological enablers should have for supporting them, thus reaching higher effectiveness in the reengineering process. Title: A GENERATOR FRAMEWORK FOR DOMAIN-SPECIFIC MODEL TRANSFORMATION LANGUAGES Author(s): Thomas Reiter, Elisabeth Kapsammer, Werner Retschitzegger, Wieland Schwinger and Markus Stumptner Abstract: Domain specific languages play an important role in model driven development, as they allow to model a system using modeling constructs carrying implicit semantics specific to a domain. Consequently, possibly many reusable, domain specific languages will emerge. Thereby, certain application areas, such as business process engineering, can be jointly covered by a number of conceptually related DSLs, that are similar in a sense of sharing semantically equal concepts. Although, a crucial role in being able to use, manage and integrate all these DSLs comes to model transformation languages with QVT as one of their most prominent representatives, existing approaches have not aimed at reaping benefit of these semantically overlapping DSLs in terms of providing abstraction mechanisms for shared concepts. Therefore, as opposed to a generalpurpose model transformation language sought after with the QVT-RFP, this work discusses the possibility of employing domain-specific model transformation languages. These are specifically tailored for defining transformations between metamodels sharing certain characteristics. In this context, the paper introduces a basic framework which allows generating the necessary tools to define and execute transformations written in such a domain-specific transformation language. To illustrate the approach, an example language will be introduced and its realization within the framework is shown. Title: A FORMAL APPROACH TO DETECTING SHILLING BEHAVIORS IN CONCURRENT ONLINE AUCTIONS Author(s): Yi-Tsung Cheng and Haiping Xu Abstract: Shilling behaviors are one of the most serious fraudulent problems in online auctions, which make winning bidders have to pay more than what they should pay for auctioned items. In concurrent online auctions, shilling behaviors are even more severe because detecting, predicting and preventing such fraudulent behaviors become very difficult. In this paper, we propose a formal approach to detecting shilling behaviors in concurrent online auctions using model checking techniques. We first developed a model template that represents two concurrent online auctions in Promela. Based on the model template, we derive an auction model that simulates the bidding process of two concurrent auctions. Then we use the SPIN model checker to formally verify if the auction model satisfy normal and questionable behavioral properties that are written in LTL (Linear Temporal Logic) formulae. Our approach simplifies the problem of searching for shilling behavior in concurrent online auctions into a model checking problem. Finally, we provide a case study to illustrate how our approach can effectively detect possible shill bidders. Title: ARCHITECTING SOA SOLUTIONS FROM ENTERPRISE MODELS - A MODEL DRIVEN FRAMEWORK TO ARCHITECT SOA SOLUTIONS FROM ENTERPRISE MODELS Author(s): Xabier Larrucea and Gorka Benguria Abstract: The improvement of the operational efficiency is an important concern in the several kinds of enterprises, but it involves the management of a multitude of elements. To be able to cope with such as complexity several enterprises are relaying in the use of enterprise modelling tools. This usually becomes a starting point for business process automation initiatives towards the improvement of the organisation. However, there is still a large gap from these enterprise models to the infrastructure systems. The current paper presents a MDA (Model Driven Architectures) framework over eclipse platform to address this gap for SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) based solutions and more in deep the notation and transformation aspects of the framework. The framework provides a systematic approach for deriving SOA solutions from enterprises models, ensuring that the information systems really implements the models developed by the business experts and no partial interpretations from IT experts. Title: TOWARDS A MAINTAINABILITY EVALUATION IN SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURES Author(s): Anna Grimán, Luisana Chávez, María Pérez, Luis Mendoza and Kenyer Domínguez Abstract: Software quality is defined as user requirement satisfaction, including those requirements that are visible (external quality) and those that are exclusive to the product (internal quality). Maintainability is an internal quality characteristic that is contemplated by many users and developers, and therefore is deeply related to software architecture. It presents an organization of its components and relation which promote or obstruct different attributes like testability, changeability, and analyzability. This relationship between maintainability and software architecture determines the importance of making appropriate architectural decisions. As part of a research in progress, this article analyzes and organizes a set of architectural mechanisms that guarantee software maintainability. To propose the architectural mechanisms we decided first to construct an ontology, which helps identify all concepts related to Maintainability and their relationships. Then we decided to focus and specify mechanisms that promote maintainability, also we present a set of scenarios that will explore the presence at the architecture of those concepts previously identified, including the architectural mechanism analyzed. With the products described in this article we have the bases to develop an architectural evaluation method, which is based on maintainability Title: METHODOLOGICAL GUIDELINES FOR SQA IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS - AN APPROACH BASED ON THE SPICE MODEL Author(s): Anna Griman, Maria Perez and Luis Mendoza Abstract: As far as international standards for promoting Software Process Quality are concerned, one of the most popular and accepted is ISO 15504 (or SPICE model). On the other hand, since a development methodology must guide the main activities in software development, it is necessary that this one fulfils some Quality Base Practices to guarantee a high-level product. The purpose of this research is analyzing a set of five methodologies widely used by developers, to identify its adjustment with respect to the aforementioned standard. This analysis allowed us: (1) determining the degree of alignment of these methodologies with respect to the SPICE model, and (2) proposing a synthesis of methodological guidelines, based on the best practices obtained from these methodologies, that supports the characteristics contained in the studied standard. Title: REFINEMENT OF SDBC BUSINESS PROCESS MODELS USING ISDL Author(s): Boris Shishkov and Dick Quartel Abstract: A reason for software failures today is the limited capability of most of the currently used software development methods to appropriately reflect the original business information in a software model. The SDBC approach addresses this challenge by allowing for an adequate mapping between a business process model and a software specification model. Both models consist of corresponding aspect models which are to be consistent with each other. They relate to particular perspectives which consider statics, dynamics, and data. Nevertheless, we acknowledge that real-life communicative and coordination actions make a business system more complex than a well-structured and rules-driven software systems. Hence, SDBC considers also a business perspective which concerns communication and coordination. Thus SDBC should allow for capturing these issues (as complementing the dynamics) on the business process modeling level and adequately mapping them to a dynamic software specification aspect model. SDBC uses three modeling techniques concerning this goal: two business process modeling techniques grasping communication and dynamics, respectively, as well as a software specification technique grasping dynamics. However, the transformations among these techniques complicate the modeling process. Further, different techniques use different modeling formalisms whose reflection sometimes causes limitations. For this reason, we studied potentials for combining SDBC with an integrated modeling facility based on the language ISDL. In particular, we explore in this paper the value which ISDL could bring to SDBC in aligning communication and dynamic business process models as well as in mapping them towards software specification. ISDL allows one to refine dynamic process models by adding communication and coordination actions, and provides a method to assess whether this refinement conforms to the original process model. Furthermore, ISDL can be used to model software application services and designs, thereby allowing one to relate business process modeling and software specification within the context of the same language facility. Title: VISUAL CONTRACTS - A WAY TO REASON ABOUT STATES AND CARDINALITIES IN IT SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS Author(s): José Diego De la Cruz, Lam-Son Lê and Alain Wegmann Abstract: Visual modeling languages propose specialized diagrams to represent behaviour and concepts necessary to specify IT systems. As a result, to understand a specification, the modeller needs to analyze these two types of diagrams and, often, additional statements that make explicit the relationships between them. In this paper, we define a visual contract notation that integrates behaviour and concepts. Thanks to this notation, the modeler can specify, within one diagram, an action and its effects on the specified IT system. The notation semantics is illustrated by a mapping to Alloy, a light weight formalization language. Title: AN ONTOLOGY FOR ARCHITECTURAL EVALUATION - CASE STUDY: COLLABORATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Anna Grimán, María Pérez, José Garrido and María Rodriguez Abstract: Barbacci et al. (1995) state that the development of systematic ways to relate the quality attributes of a system to its architecture, constitutes the basis for making objective decisions on design agreements, and helps engineers do reasonably accurate predictions as to the system attributes, free of prejudice and non-trivial assumptions. The aim is being able to evaluate architecture quantitatively to reach agreements among multiple quality attributes and thus globally attain a better system. However, the elements required to incorporate this evaluation into different types of development models, are not clear. This paper proposes an ontology to conceptualize the issues inherent to architectural evaluation within a development process, which will help identify the scope of the evaluation, as well as the issues to be guaranteed to achieve effectiveness within different development processes, both agile and rigorous. The main conclusion of the research allowed us to identify the interaction elements between the development process and an architectural evaluation method, establishing the starting and end points as well as the inputs required for the incorporation into different kinds of processes. This interaction was validated through a case study, a Collaboration Systems Development Methodology. Title: CEO FRAMEWORK ENTERPRISE MODELS CONFORMANCE WITH ISO14258 Author(s): Patrícia Macedo, Carla Ferreira and José Tribolet Abstract: Several international standards for Enterprise Engineering were developed in order to: promote the quality and reliability of the communication between the partners involved in business processes; upgrade the compatibility and alignment between the systems which support business processes. In this area an international standard was develop – ISO 14258 – which specifies rules and concepts for enterprise modelling. CEO Framework is an analysis framework that provides a formal way of describing enterprises. This article describes the how to verify that an enterprise modelling frameworks generates models in conformance with ISO14248. This sequence of steps is applied to verify CEO framework compliance. Title: METHODOLOGY TO SUPPORT SEMANTIC RESOURCES INTEGRATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR Author(s): Simona Barresi, Yacine Rezgui, Farid Meziane and Celson Lima Abstract: Ontologies, taxonomies, and other semantic resources, are used in a variety of sectors to facilitate knowledge reuse and information exchange between people and applications. In recent years, the need to access multiple semantic resources has led to the development of a variety of projects and tools aiming at integrating existing resources. This paper describes the methodology used during the FUNSIEC project, to develop an open infrastructure for the European Construction sector (OSIECS). This infrastructure aims towards facilitating integration among Construction related semantic resources, providing a base for the development of a new generation of e-services for the domain. Title: BUSINESS PROCESSES: BEHAVIOR PREDICTION AND CAPTURING REASONS FOR EVOLUTION Author(s): Sharmila Subramaniam, Vana Kalogeraki and Dimitrios Gunopulos Abstract: Workflow systems are being used by business enterprises to improve the efciency of their internal processes and enhance the services provided to their customers. Workow models are the fundamental components of Workow Management Systems used to dene ordering, scheduling and other components of workow tasks. Companies can use these models to plan their resource usage, satisfy customer needs and maximize prot and productivity. Companies increasingly follow exible workow models in order to adapt to changes in business logic, making it more challenging to predict resource demands. In such a scenario, knowledge of what lies ahead i.e., the set of tasks that are going to be executed in the future, assists the process administration to take decisions pertaining to process management in advance. In this work, we propose a method to predict possible paths of a running instance, by applying classication techniques to the history of past executions of the corresponding process. For instances that deviate from the workow model graph, we propose methods to determine the characteristics of the changes using classication rules. These rules can be given as input to the process modeler to restructure the graph accordingly. Title: GENERATION AND USE OF ONE ONTOLOGY FOR INTELLIGENT INFORMATION RETRIEVAL FROM ELECTRONIC RECORD HISTORIES Author(s): Miguel A. Prados de Reyes, Maria Carmen Peña Yañez, Maria Amparo Vila Miranda and M. Belen Prados Suarez Abstract: This paper analyzes the terminology used in the diagnosis, treatment, exploration, and operation descriptions entered by doctors in the electronic healthcare record. From this, expression stability (and the use of a sufficiently limited and controlled language) is shown, which is therefore reasonably valid for a conceptualization process to be employed on it. This conceptualization process is performed by the generation of an ontology which proposes semantic classes according to the different medical concepts to be used on database query profiles. By way of summary, we shall propose a semantic organizational method so that classes, attributes and properties in the ontology may act as links between the database and the users, both in information incorporation processes and in queries. It offers a wide range of benefits by extending and making information management possibilities more flexible, and enabling the application of traditional data mining techniques. Title: SUPPORTING AUTHENTICATION REQUIREMENTS IN WORKFLOWS Author(s): Ricardo Martinho, Dulce Domingos and António Rito-Silva Abstract: Workflow technology represent nowadays significant added value to organizations that use information systems to support their business processes. By their nature, workflows support the integration of different information systems. As organizations use workflows increasingly, workflows manipulate more valuable and sensitive data. Either by interoperability issues or by the value of data manipulated, a workflow may present several and distinct authentication requirements. Typically, information systems deal with their authentication requirements once, within their authentication process. This strategy cannot be easily applied to workflows since each workflow activity may present its own authentication requirements. In this paper we identify authentication requirements that workflows present and we propose to meet these requirements by incorporating authentication constraints into workflow authorization definitions. With this purpose, we extend the Role- Based Access Control (RBAC) model and we define an access control algorithm that supports and enforces authorization decisions constrained by authentication information. Title: TECHNOLOGY FOR LEAST-COST NETWORK ROUTING VIA BLUETOOTH AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATION - REPLACING INTERNET ACCESS THROUGH WIRELESS PHONE NETWORKS BY BT DATA LINKS Author(s): Hans Weghorn Abstract: Today, mobile devices are equipped with a variety of wireless communication interfaces. While initially small handheld devices only could use cellular telephony networks for establishing data communication such as Internet downloads, nowadays data contents can be retrieved additionally through communication standards like wireless LAN or Bluetooth. For the latter there exists a variety of technical and scientific pa-pers that discuss how Bluetooth communication can be established in principle – especially between two mobile devices. On the other hand, a description of how data communication between a mobile device and a desktop computer can be implemented is not found in detail. Furthermore, the restrictions of Bluetooth communication like extended search times are not discussed in these qualitative articles. In a technical de-scription here, it shall be displayed how to establish with a minimal effort a streaming data link between handheld devices and fixly installed computer systems in terms of a software implementation recipe. On base of concrete application samples, it is shown that Bluetooth can be employed to construct location-based information services with least-cost Internet data routing, but also the constraints and efficiency of Bluetooth communication technology are investigated and discussed for the given applications. Title: COMMONALITY VERSUS VARIABILITY - THE CONTRADICTORY NATURE OF ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS Author(s): Stig Nordheim Abstract: This position paper argues that there is a major contradiction inherent in Enterprise Systems (ES). The evidence for this contradiction is seen in the meta level concepts of commonality and variability that characterize enterprise systems. The inherent contradiction of commonality and variability is discussed in the light of ES literature and interviews with three ES vendors. The inherent contradiction of enterprise systems is then presented, with the questions it raises. Title: TRANSFORMATION OF UML DESIGN MODEL INTO PERFORMANCE MODEL - A MODEL-DRIVEN FRAMEWORK Author(s): Ramrao Wagh, Umesh Bellur and Bernard Menezes Abstract: Software Performance Engineering is receiving increasing attention in today’s software dominated world. Compared to research work in performance evaluation in hardware and networks, this field is still in its nascent stage. Many methods have been proposed but majority of them are unable to adapt in the software development life-cycle dominated by professionals without substantial performance engineering background. We propose a Model Driven Software Performance Engineering Framework to facilitate performance engineering within software development life cycle, based on OMG’s MDA initiative. Title: MOLDING ARCHITECTURE AND INTEGRITY MECHANISMS EVOLUTION - AN ARCHITECTURAL STABILITY EVALUATION MODEL FOR SOFTWARE SYSTEMS Author(s): Octavian-Paul Rotaru Abstract: The stability of architecture is a measure of how well it accommodates the evolution of the system without requiring changes to the architecture. The link between integrity mechanisms and application’s architecture starts right from the moment the requirements of the application are defined and evolves together with them. The integrity mechanisms used will evolve whenever the application’s requirements are modified. Apart from the possible architectural changes required, adding a new requirement to an application can trigger structural changes in the way data integrity is preserved. The paper studies the architectural stability of a system on integrity oriented case study and proposes a mathematical model for architectural evaluation of software systems inspired from the perturbations’ theory. The proposed mathematical model can be used to mold the evolution of any software system affected by requirements changes; to find the architectural states of the system for which a given set of requirements is not a trigger (doesn’t provoke an architectural change); and to find the architectural configuration which is optimal for a given set of requirements (evolves as less as possible). Title: APPLYING AGENT-ORIENTED MODELLING AND PROTOTYPING TO SERVICE-ORIENTED SYSTEMS Author(s): Aneesh Krishna, Ying Guan and Aditya Ghose Abstract: A Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a form of distributed systems architecture, which is essentially a collection of services. Web services are built in the distributed environment of the Internet, enabling the integration of applications in a web environment. In this paper, we show how agent-oriented conceptual modelling techniques can be used to model service-oriented systems and architectures and how these models can be executed. The resulting executable specification environment permits us to support early rapid prototyping of the service-oriented systems, at varying levels of abstraction. Area 4 - Software Agents and Internet Computing Title: MOBILE AGENT IN E-COMMERCE Author(s): Mohamed Elkobaisi Abstract: Among features often attributed to software agents are autonomy and mobility. Autonomy of e-commerce agents involves adaptability to engage in negotiations governed by mechanisms not known in advance, while their mobility entails such negotiations taking place at remote locations. This paper aims at combining adaptability with mobility, by joining rule-based mechanism representation with modular agent design, and at UML-formalizing selected aspects of the resulting system. Furthermore, we discuss the issue of agent mobility and argue why such agents have been proposed for the system under consideration. Title: CONTEXT-DRIVEN POLICY ENFORCEMENT AND RECONCILIATION FOR WEB SERVICES Author(s): S. Sattanathan, N. C. Narendra, Z. Maamar and G. Kouadri Mostéfaoui Abstract: Security of Web services is a major factor to their successful integration into critical IT applications. An extensive research in this direction concentrates on low level aspects of security such as message secrecy, data integrity, and authentication. Thus, proposed solutions are mainly built upon the assumption that security mechanisms are static and predefined. However, the dynamic nature of the Internet and the continuously changing environments where Web services operate require innovative and adaptive security solutions. This paper presents our solution for securing Web services based on adaptive policies, where adaptability is satisfied using the contextual information of the Web services. The proposed solution includes a negotiation and reconciliation protocol for security policies. Title: OWL-BASED KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY USING DESCRIPTION LOGICS REASONERS Author(s): Dimitrios A. Koutsomitropoulos, Dimitrios P. Meidanis, Anastasia N. Kandili and Theodore S. Papatheodorou Abstract: The recent advent of the Semantic Web has given rise to the need for efficient and sound methods that would provide reasoning support over the knowledge scattered on the Internet. Description Logics and DL-based inference engines in particular play a significant role towards this goal, as they seem to have overlapping expressivity with the Semantic Web de facto language, OWL. In this paper we argue that DLs currently constitute one of the most tempting available formalisms to support reasoning with OWL. Further, we present and survey a number of DL based systems that could be used for this task. Around one of them (Racer) we build our Knowledge Discovery Interface, a web application that can be used to pose intelligent queries to Semantic Web documents in an intuitive manner. As a proof of concept, we then apply the KDI on the CIDOC-CRM reference ontology and discuss our results. Title: MAINTAINING PROPERTY LIBRARIES IN PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES Author(s): Joerg Leukel Abstract: Semantic interoperability in B2B e-commerce can be achieved by committing to a product ontology that establishes a shared and common understanding of a product domain. This issue is mainly subject of standard product classification schemes. Recently, considerable research and industry work has been carried out on enhancing the formal precision of these schemes. Providing specific property lists for each product class is seen as a first step towards true product ontologies. However, horizontal classification schemes often consist of more than 10,000 classes, several thousand properties, and an even greater number of class-property relations. Given the new requirement towards property-centric classification, maintaining these business vocabularies is greatly influenced by strategies for managing the property definitions and their relationships to classes. This paper proposes and evaluates measures for coping with the problem of extensive and steadily growing property libraries. It can be shown that implementing these measures greatly influence both standards makers and standards adopters. Title: A POLICY-BASED APPROACH TO SECURE CONTEXT IN A WEB SERVICES ENVIRONMENT Author(s): Zakaria Maamar, Ghita Kouadri Mostéfaoui and Djamal Benslimane Abstract: This paper presents a policy-based approach for securing the contexts associated with Web services, users, and computing resources. Users interact with Web services for personalization needs, and Web services interact with resources for performance needs. To authorize any context change, a security context is developed. The security context reports on the strategies that protect a context using authorization and restriction~policies. Title: INTEGRATING SEMANTIC WEB REASONING INTO LEARNING OBJECT METADATA Author(s): Shang-Juh Kao and I-Ching Hsu Abstract: One of important functions of Learning Object Metadata (LOM) is to associate XML-based metadata with learning objects. The inherent problem of LOM is that it’s XML specified, which emphasizes syntax and format rather than semantic and knowledge. Hence, it lacks the semantic metadata to provide reasoning and inference functions. These functions are necessary for the computer-interpretable descriptions that are critical in the reusability and interoperability of the distributed learning objects. This paper aims at addressing this shortage, and proposes a multi-layered semantic framework to allow the reasoning and inference capabilities to be added to the conventional LOM. To illustrate how this framework work, we developed a Semantic-based Learning Objects Annotations Repository (SLOAR) that offers three different approaches to locate relevant learning objects for an e-learning application - LOM-based metadata, ontology-based reasoning, and rule-based inference. Finally, an experimental report for performance evaluation of the various approaches is presented. Title: RECOVERY SERVICES FOR THE PLANNING LAYER OF AGENTS Author(s): Khaled Nagi and George Beskales Abstract: Software agents represent aim at automating user tasks. A central task of an agent is planning to achieve its goals. Unexpected disturbances occurring in the agent execution environment represent a serious challenge for agent planning. In this work, a recovery model for the planning process of agents is proposed to cope with these disturbances. The proposed recovery model supports the Hierarchical Task Networks (HTN) planners which represent a broad family of planners that are widely used in agent systems. A prototype for the proposed recovery services is implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Fur-thermore, a simulation is built and many simulation experiments were conducted to gain insight about the performance of the proposed recovery model. Title: SAFETY OF CHECKPOINTING AND ROLLBACK-RECOVERY PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE SYSTEMS WITH RYW SESSION GUARANTEE Author(s): Jerzy Brzeziński, Anna Kobusińska and Jacek Kobusiński Abstract: This paper presents rRYW checkpointing and rollback-recovery protocol for mobile environment, where clients accessing data are not bound to particular servers and can switch from one server to another. The proposed protocol is integrated with the underlying consistency VsSG protocol, which provides system consistency from a client’s perspective. The rRYW protocol combines logging and checkpointing of operations to prevent Read Your Writes session guarantee provided by VsSG, even in case of servers failures. The paper includes proofs of safety and liveness properties of the presented protocol. Title: A MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR INFORMATION SHARING Author(s): Marco Mari, Agostino Poggi and Michele Tomaiuolo Abstract: This paper presents RAIS, a peer-to-peer multi-agent system supporting the sharing of information among a community of users connected through the internet. RAIS has been designed and implemented on the top of well known technologies and software tools for realizing multi-agent and peer-to-peer systems, for the searching of information and for the authentication and authorization of users. RAIS offers a similar search power of Web search engines, but avoids the burden of publishing the information on the Web and guaranties a controlled and dynamic access to the information. Moreover, the use of agent technologies simplifies the realization of three of the main features of the system: i) the filtering of the information coming from different users on the basis of the previous experience of the local user, ii) the pushing of the new information that can be of possible interest for a user, and iii) the delegation of access capabilities on the basis of a network of reputation built by the agents of the system on the community of its users. Title: MIGRATING LEGACY VIDEO LECTURES TO MULTIMEDIA LEARNING OBJECTS Author(s): Andrea De Lucia, Rita Francese, Massimiliano Giordano, Ignazio Passero and Genoveffa Tortora Abstract: Video Lectures are an old distance learning approach which do not offer any feature of interaction and retrieval to the user. Thus, to follow the new learning paradigms we need to reengineer the e-learning processes while preserving the investments made in the past. In this paper we present a methodology for semi-automatically migrating traditional video lectures into multimedia Learning Objects. The process identifies the frames where a slide transition occurs and extracts from the PowerPoint Presentation information for structuring the Learning Object metadata. Similarly to scene detection approaches, we iteratively tune several parameters starting from a small portion of the video to reach the best results. Once a slide transition is correctly detected, the video sample is successively enlarged until satisfactory results are reached. The proposed approach has been validated in a case study. Title: AN SMS-BASED E-GOVERNMENT MODEL Author(s): Tony Dwi Susanto and Robert Goodwin Abstract: The fact that more than one-third of e-government initiatives in developing countries are total failures, half are partial failures and roughly only one-seventh are successful, show that e-government development in developing countries has many problems. According to an analysis by Heeks (2003), one of the failure factors of e-government in developing countries is unrealistic design. This paper will focus on this factor, particularly the mismatch of the technological design for accessing e-government systems and the skills and access to the technology of the citizens. Many countries, particularly developing countries, still face problems of lack of internet infrastructure, low of internet penetration, internet illiteracy and high internet costs. When governments implement web-based e-government models which require citizens to access the system by the Internet/web medium, the failure rate is high as few citizens can participate. There is technology gap between design and reality. In the same countries, mobile phones are widely used, are low in cost, and citizens are more familiar with the short message service application (SMS) than the Internet and Web. In order to address this situation, the paper proposes an SMS-based e-government system as a first step toward a future Internet-based e-government system in order to increase public (citizens and businesses) participation in e-government systems. Title: SUPPORTING COMPLEX COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES – THE LIBRESOURCE APPROACH Author(s): Olivera Marjanovic, Hala Skaf-Molli , Pascal Molli , Fethi Rabhi1 and Claude Godart Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to describe collaborative technology called LibreSource and how it is used to implement an innovative learning/teaching activity designed for software engineering students. From the educational perspective, this educational activity is based on the principles of problem-based learning and the latest Learning Design theory. The main objective of this activity to offer students a real-life experience in collaborative software development. Compared to the popular Learning Management Systems that only offer collaborative tools and support individual collaborative tasks, this technology enables design and implementation of complex collaborative processes. Title: TOWARDS A WEB PORTAL DATA QUALITY MODEL Author(s): Angélica Caro, Coral Calero, Ismael Caballero and Mario Piattini Abstract: The technological advance and the internet have favoured the appearance of a great diversity of web applications, one of them are Web Portals. Through this, organizations develop their businesses in a more and more competitive environment. A decisive factor for this competitiveness is the assurance of data quality. In the last years, several research works on Web Data Quality have been developed. However, there is a lack of specific proposals for web portals data quality. In this paper, we will present a proposal for a model data quality for web portals based on some web data quality works. Title: E-PROCUREMENT ADOPTION AMONG ITALIAN FIRMS BY USING DOMAIN NAMES Author(s): Maurizio Martinelli, Irma Serrecchia and Michela Serrecchia Abstract: The digital divide can occur either as a “local” ( within a given country) or “global” (between developing and industrialized countries) phenomenon. Our study intends to offer an important contribution by analyzing the digital divide in Italy and the factors contributing to this situation at the territorial level (i.e., macroareas: North, Center, South and at the provincial level) To do this, we used the registration of Internet domains under the “.it” ccTLD as proxy. In particular, we analyzed domain names registered by firms. The analysis produced interesting results: the distribution of domains registered by firms in Italian provinces is more concentrated than the distribution according to income and number of firms, suggesting a diffusive effect. Furthermore, when analyzing the factors that contribute to the presence of a digital divide at the regional level, regression analysis was performed using demographic, social, economic and infrastructure indicators. Results show that Italian regions that have good productive efficiency measured of the added value per employee and a high educational level measured by number of firms specialized in the ICT service sale (provider/maintainer) and by number of employees devoted to research and development are the best candidates for utilization of the Internet. Title: DYNAMIC SERVICE COMPOSITION : A PETRI-NET BASED APPROACH Author(s): Michael Köhler, Daniel Moldt and Jan Ortmann Abstract: Dynamic service composition requires a formal description of the services such that an agent can process these descriptions and reason about them. The amount of detail needed for an agent to grasp the meaning of a service results in clumsy specification. Petri nets offer a visual modeling technique for processes, that offers a refinement mechanism. Through this, a specification can be inspected on the level of detail needed for a given objective. In this paper we introduce a Petri net based approach to capture the semantics of services by combining Petri nets ideas from the description logic area focusing on ontologies. The resulting framework can than be used by agents to plan about activities involving services. Title: A SUCCINCT ANALYSIS OF WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION Author(s): Wassam Zahreddine and Qusay H. Mahmoud Abstract: Numerous standards are being proposed by industry and academia to find ways to best compose web services together. Such standards have produced semi-automatic compositions which can only be applied in a limited number of scenarios. Indeed, the future is moving towards a semantic web and fully automatic compositions will only occur when semantics are involved with web services. This paper discusses recent research and future challenges in the field of service composition. The paper classifies service composition into two streams: semi-automatic and automatic, then it compares and contrasts the available composition techniques. Title: WSRF-BASED VIRTUALIZATION FOR MANUFACTURING RESOURCES Author(s): Lei Wu, Xiangxu Meng, Shijun Liu, Chenlei Yang and Xueqin Li Abstract: The essence of a Grid is the virtualization of resource and the virtualization of the concept of a user. The term of manufacturing grid (MG) is the applying of grid technologies on manufacturing. To share manufacturing resources in Manufacturing Grid, they could be virtualized and exposed as web service. The paper presents a new way based WSRF to virtualize resource. The paper presents resource encapsulation templates and resource container to virtualilze resource conveniently. The design principle and the implement of the resource encapsulate template and the resource container is described in detail. The resource container is a WSRF service deployed in GT java core and can virtualize resource as WS-Resource. Resource providers can encapsulate their resources with the encapsulation template and added them in the resource container. The resource will be virtualized and exposed as web service and be shared in grid. We have developed a prototype platform to testify the validity of the resource virtualization method. The portal (www.mgrid.cn) can be visited now. Title: A MULTI-AGENT BASED FRAMEWORK FOR SUPPORTING LEARNING IN ADAPTIVE AUTOMATED NEGOTIATION Author(s): Rômulo Oliveira, Herman Gomes, Alan Silva, Ig Bittencourt and Evandro Costa Abstract: Automated negotiation is one of the hottest research topics in AI applied to e-commerce. Lately this topic is receiving more attention from the scientific community with the challenges related to providing more realistic and feasible solutions. Following this track, we propose a multi-agent based framework for supporting adaptive bilateral automated negotiation during buyer-seller agent interactions. In this work, these interactions are viewed as a cooperative game (from the idea of two-person game theory, nonzerosum game), where the players try to reach an agreement about a certain negotiation object that is offered by one player to another. The final agreement is assumed to be satisfactory to both parts. To achieve effectively this goal, we modelled each player as a multi-agent system with its respective environment. In doing so, we aim at providing an effective means to collect relevant information to help agents to make good decisions, that is, how to choose the best way to play'' among a set of alternatives. Then we define a mechanism to model the opponent player and other mechanisms for monitoring relevant variables from the player´ environment. Also, we maintain the context of the current game and keep the most relevant information of previous games. Additionally, we integrate all the information to be used in the refinement of the game strategies governing the multi-agent system. Title: AOPOA - ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACH FOR AGENT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING Author(s): Enrique González and Miguel Torres Abstract: This paper presents AOPOA, an agent oriented programming methodology based in an organizational approach. The resulting multiagent system is composed by a set of active entities that aim to accomplish a well-defined set of goals. This approach allows to build complex systems by decomposing them into simpler ones. The organizational approach makes it easier to perform an iterative and recursive decomposition based in the concept of goal; and at the same time to identify the interactions between the entities composing the system. At each iteration an organization level is developed. During the analysis phase, tasks and roles are detected. During the design phase, the interactions are specified and managed by cooperation links. At the final iteration, the role parameterization is performed, which allows to specify the events and actions associated to each agent. Title: THE STATE OF E-BUSINESS ON THE GERMAN ELECTRONIC CONSUMER GOODS INDUSTRY Author(s): Eulalio G. Campelo F. and Wolffried Stucky Abstract: B2B electronic commerce is an increasing important component of company’s strategy as it provides key support for the business processes and transactions. Therefore, e-business applications were expected to have a high cumulative growth and be widely applied by companies in different sectors of the global economy. This paper outlines the state of e-business on one of the most dynamic sectors in the area of B2B electronic commerce, the electronic consumer goods industry in the highly competitive German market. The intention is to develop a better understanding on the level of information technology utilisation to support businesses as well as the reasons and the course of e-business initiatives in this sector. Title: POWERING RSS AGGREGATORS WITH ONTOLOGIES - A CASE FOR THE RSSOWL AGGREGATOR Author(s): Felipe M. Villoria, Oscar Díaz and Sergio F. Anzuola Abstract: Content syndication through RSS is gaining wide acceptance, and it is envisaged that feed aggregators will be provided as a commodity in future browsers. As we consume more of our information by way of RSS feeds, search mechanisms other than simple keyword search will be required. To this end, advances in semantic tooling can effectively improve the current state of the art in feed aggregators. This work reports on the benets of making a popular RSS aggregator, RSSOwl, ontology-aware. The paper uses three common functions, namely, semantic view, semantic navigation and semantic query, to illustrate how RSS aggregators can be ontology powered. The outcome is that location, browsing and rendering of RSS feeds are customised to the conceptual model of the reader, making RSS aggregators a powerful companion to face the RSSosphere. The system has been fully implemented, and successfully tested by distinct users. Title: THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS E-DEMOCRACY - EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE VIENNESE POPULATION Author(s): Alexander Prosser, Yan Guo and Jasmin Lenhart Abstract: Systems for citizen participation have become technically feasible and are currently being developed. But what are the preferences of the citizens and which factors determine their attitude towards e-democracy? This paper reports the results of a representative survey in the Viennese population investigating the attitude towards e-democracy, the relationship to the respondents’ current Internet usage and possible motives for e-democracy. Title: AN OPEN ARCHITECTURE FOR COLLABORATIVE VISUALIZATION IN RICH MEDIA ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Bernd Eßmann, Thorsten Hampel and Frank Goetz Abstract: Mobile cooperation systems are in focus of current CSCW research. Many challenges of supporting users' mobility arise from weak computational power of their mobile devices. Especially when visualization applications need to compute complex three-dimensional scenes from huge data-sets also more powerful mobile devices reach their limits. In this paper we present a solution for providing complex visualization techniques embedded in a fully-fledged CSCW system for broad spectrum of (portable) computer devices. Our approach combines two sophisticated technologies. On the visualization part it deploys remote render farms to produce the representation as video streams, separately for every cooperation partner. Thus the mobile devices only need to be able to play MEPG-4 compliant video streams, commonly provided by off-the-shelf PDAs and laptops. On the part of the collaboration support we use a full-featured CSCW system. This allows embedding visualizations as active objects into cooperative knowledge spaces. In a document centered environment the visualizations are displayed as active pictures on a cooperative shared whiteboard. Users may manipulate the visualization scene as well as the whiteboard representation which is a view on the persistent knowledge space saved in the CSCW system. Title: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED IS FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF LEAN SUPPLY CHAINS Author(s): Emmanuel Adamides, Nikos Karacapilidis, Hara Pylarinou and Dimitrios Koumanakos Abstract: In this paper we present Co-LEAN, an integrated suite of software tools suitable for the design and management of lean supply chains. In addition to providing full operational support in the planning and execution of the lean supply chain, Co-LEAN supports internet-based collaboration in the innovation and product design, manufacturing strategy, and supply-chain improvement tasks. The paper discusses the information system support requirements of a lean supply chain, describes the main components and the integration mechanisms of Co-LEAN and concludes with a brief description of its pilot use in a major supermarket chain. Title: THE CASCOM ABSTRACT ARCHITECTURE FOR SEMANTIC SERVICE DISCOVERY AND COORDINATION IN IP2P ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Cesar Caceres, Alberto Fernandez, Sascha Ossowski and Matteo Vasirani Abstract: Intelligent agent-based peer-to-peer (IP2P) environments provide a means for pervasively providing and flexibly co-ordinating ubiquitous business application services to the mobile users and workers in the dynamically changing contexts of open, large-scale, and pervasive settings. In this paper, we present an abstract architecture for service delivery and coordination in IP2P environments that has been developed within the CASCOM project. Furthermore, we outline the potential benefits of a role-based interaction modelling approach for a concrete application of this abstract architecture based on a real-world scenario for emergency assistance in the healthcare domain. Title: E-LEARNING USE IN THE TERTIARY EDUCATION IN CYPRUS Author(s): Vasso Stylianou and Angelika Kokkinak Abstract: E-Learning may be defined as any training activity that utilizes electronic technology to provide instructional content or various learning experiences through an electronic network, which can be customized for specific business needs or even individual needs. The geographic position and size of Cyprus make it ideal for businesses to grow by capitalizing on the benefits of e-learning and e-training. Opportunities exist in all areas of e-learning in academic education and industrial training for expanding education in Cyprus to other regions, creating regional hubs for international students and industries on-line worldwide. Any strategic move in this direction would initially require an appreciation of the current state of affairs in respect to e-learning availability in Cyprus. Thus, the aim of this study has been to investigate e-learning facilities provided in some of the main tertiary education institutions in the island, namely the Intercollege, the University of Cyprus and the Higher Technical Institute. The findings of this investigation, formed as brief case studies, are presented herein and certain conclusions are being made. Title: CLIENT SYNTHESIS FOR WEB SERVICES BY WAY OF A TIMED SEMANTICS Author(s): Serge Haddad, Patrice Moreaux and Sylvain Rampacek Abstract: A complex Web service described with languages like BPEL4WS, consists of an executable process and its observable behaviour (called an abstract process) based on the messages exchanged with the client. The abstract process behaviour is non deterministic due to the internal choices during the service execution. Furthermore the specification often includes timing constraints which must be taken into account by the client. Thus given a service specification, we identify the synthesis of a client as a key issue for the development of Web services. To this end, we propose an approach based on (dense) timed automata to first describe the observable service behaviour and then to build correct interacting clients when possible. The present work extends a previous discrete time approach and overcomes its limitations. Title: DISTRIBUTED BUSINESS PROCESSES IN OPEN AGENT ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Christine Reese, Kolja Markwardt, Sven Offermann and Daniel Moldt Abstract: In the context of multi agent systems, one general aim is the interoperability of agents. One problem remaining is the control of processes between agents. The need for workflow technology on an agent level to support business processes becomes obvious. We provide concepts for distributed WFMS where the distribution is realised within the architecture. This work is innovative regarding the interplay of those technologies against the formal background of Petri nets. Title: USING SHADOW PRICES FOR RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN A COMBINATORIAL GRID WITH PROXY-BIDDING AGENTS Author(s): Michael Schwind and Oleg Gujo Abstract: Our paper presents an agent-based simulation environment for task scheduling in a distributed computer systems (grid). The scheduler enables the simultaneous allocation of resources like CPU time, communication bandwidth, volatile and non-volatile memory while employing a combinatorial resource allocation mechanism. The resource allocation is performed by an iterative combinatorial auction in which proxy-bidding agents try to acquire their desired resource allocation profiles with respect to limited monetary budget endowments. To achieve an efficient bidding process, the auctioneer provides resource price information to the bidding agents. The calculation of the resource prices in a combinatorial auction is not trivial, especially if the the bid bundles exhibit complementarities or substitutionalities. We propose an approximate pricing mechanism using shadow prices from a linear programming formulation for this purpose. The efficiency of the shadow price-based allocation mechanism is tested in the context of a closed loop grid system in which the agents can use monetary units rewarded for the resources they provide to the system for the acquisition of complementary capacity. Two types of proxy-bidding agents are compared in terms of efficiency (received units of resources, time until bid acceptance) within this scenario: An aggressive bidding agent with intense rising bids and a smooth bidding agent with slow increasing bids. Title: PROVIDING RECOMMENDATIONS IN AN AGENT-BASED TRANSPORTATION TRANSACTIONS MANAGEMENT PLATFORM Author(s): Alexis Lazanas, Nikos Karacapilidis and Yiannis Pirovolakis Abstract: Diverse recommendation techniques have been already proposed and encapsulated into several e-business systems aiming to perform a more accurate evaluation of the existing alternatives and accordingly augment the assistance provided to the users involved. Extending previous work, this paper focuses on the development of a recommendation module for transportation transactions purposes and its integration in a web-based platform. The module is built according to a hybrid recommendation technique, which combines the advantages of collaborative filtering and knowledge-based recommendations. The proposed technique and supporting module enable customers to consider in detail alternative transportation transactions satisfying their requests, as well as to evaluate such transactions after their completion. Title: A NARRATIVE APPROACH TO COLLABORATIVE WRITING - A BUSINESS PROCESS MODEL Author(s): Peter Henderson and Nishadi De Silva Abstract: Narratives have been used in the past to enhance technical documents such as research proposals by implementing a single-user writing tool called CANS (Computer-Aided Narrative Support). This study has now been extended to collaborative writing (CW); another area that can greatly benefit from a narrative-based writing tool. Before implementing such an asynchronous, multi-user system, however, it was imperative to do a concrete design for it. Therefore, after studying existing CW tools and strategies, a concise business process (BP) model was designed to describe the process of narrative-based CW. This paper introduces narrative-based CW for technical authors, the BP model for it and discusses the benefits of such an implementation on particular areas of research, such as the development of Grid applications. Title: ADDING MEANING TO QOS NEGOTIATION Author(s): Cláudia M. F. A. Ribeiro, Nelson Souto Rosa and Paulo Roberto Freire Cunha Abstract: Using quality of service (QoS) to discover Web Services that better meet users’ needs became a key factor to differentiate similar services. Treating QoS includes negotiating QoS capabilities, since there is a potential conflict between service provider and service requestor requirements. This paper addresses this problem by using an ontological approach for QoS negotiation that aims to improve user participation. For this purpose, a Service Level Agreement (SLA) ontology that explicitly considers subjective user QoS specification was conceived. Its internal components and the role it plays during service discovery are detailed. Title: A GRID SERVICE COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Author(s): Sam Chung and George A. Orriss Abstract: This paper proposes to develop a Grid Service Computing Environment for Supply Chain Management. Current research into Grid Services for distributed systems has resulted in interesting questions being raised as to whether or not the Open Grid Service Architecture can be applied to developing a Supply Chain Management system. If so, how will it affect development of SCM systems as a typical example of Business-to-Business (B2B) application integration? As much recent development has been focused on resource allocation in a Grid environment, this approach to Grid computing is still relatively unexplored. By developing a Supply Chain Management system using the Open Grid Service Architecture and the Globus toolkit, this research will provide an infrastructure for composing existing services into a system that can be utilized for Supply Chain Management. The result of this project is a Grid environment that provides efficient and effective service management of available Supply Chain Management services. Also, we address some of the inherent issues of dynamic binding and automation associated with B2B transactions, such as those surrounding security protocols, service lifecycle, and instance creation. Title: THE CONCEPT AND TECHNOLOGY OF PLUG AND PLAY BUSINESS Author(s): Paul Davidsson1, Anders Hederstierna2, Andreas Jacobsson1, Jan A. Persson, Bengt Carlsson, Stefan J. Johansson, Anders Nilsson, Gunnar Ågren, and Stefan Östholm Abstract: Several barriers to turn innovative ideas into growth-oriented businesses with a global outlook are identified. The Plug and Play Business concept is suggested to lower these barriers by making it possible for the innovator to plug into a network of actors or potential collaborators with automated entrepreneurial functions. A P2P paradigm with intelligent agents is proposed to realize an environment that manages a dynamic network of roles and business relations. It is suggested that a critical characteristic of the Plug and Play Business software is to facilitate trust in-between the actors. Area 5 - Human-Computer Interaction Title: LIBRARY IN VIRTUAL REALITY: AN INNOVATIVE WAY FOR ACCESSING, DISSEMINATING, AND SHARING INFORMATION Author(s): Tereza G. Kirner, Andréa T. Matos and Plácida L. Costa Abstract: This paper focuses on Virtual Reality (VR) as a very useful resource to be applied to the libraries available in the web, aiming at contributing to process of accessing, disseminating, and sharing information. The paper gives an overview of the use of technology in libraries, stressing some forecasts related to the so called “library of the future”. Then, it describes the VR in terms of three essential characteristics, that is, immersion, interaction, and involvement. After that, it presents some libraries in virtual reality under utilization in different countries. Finally, the paper gives the final considerations, pointing out the use of virtual reality technology to develop libraries as collaborative virtual environments. Title: CONSTRUCTIVIST INSTRUCTIONAL PRINCIPLES, LEARNER PSYCHOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ENABLERS OF LEARNING Author(s): Erkki Patokorpi Abstract: Constructivists generally assume that the central principles and objectives of the constructivist pedagogy are realized by information and communication technology (ICT) enhanced learning. This paper critically examines the grounds for this assumption in the light of available empirical and theoretical research literature. The general methodological thrust comes from Alavi and Leidner (2001), who have called for research on the interconnections of instructional method, psychological processes and technology. Hermeneutic psychology and philosophical argumentation are applied to identify some potential or actual weaknesses in the chain of connections between constructivist pedagogical principles, psychological processes, supporting technologies and the actual application of ICT in a learning environment. One example of a weak link is personalisation technologies whose immaturity hampers the constructivists’ attempts at enabling learners to create personal knowledge. Pragmatism enters the picture as a ready source of criticism, bringing out a certain one-sidedness of the constructivist view of man and learning. Title: MULTI-MODAL HANDS-FREE HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION: A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM Author(s): Frangiskos Frangeskides and Andreas Lanitis Abstract: Conventional Human Computer Interaction requires the use of hands for moving the mouse and pressing keys on the keyboard. As a result paraplegics are not able to use computer systems unless they acquire special Human Computer Interaction (HCI) equipment. In this paper we describe a prototype system that aims to provide paraplegics the opportunity to use computer systems without the need for additional invasive hardware. The proposed system is a multi-modal system combining both visual and speech input. Visual input is provided through a standard web camera used for capturing face images showing the user of the computer. Image processing techniques are used for tracking head movements, making it possible to use head motion in order to interact with a computer. Speech input is used for activating commonly used tasks that are normally activated using the mouse or the keyboard. Speech input improves the speed and ease of executing various HCI tasks in a hands free fashion. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated using a number of specially designed test applications. According to the quantitative results, it is possible to perform most HCI tasks with the same ease and accuracy as in the case that a touch pad of a portable computer is used. Currently our system is being used by a number of paraplegics. Title: AN INCLUSIVE APPROACH TO COOPERATIVE EVALUATION OF WEB USER INTERFACES Author(s): Amanda Meincke Melo and M. Cecília C. Baranauskas Abstract: Accessibility has been one of the major challenges for interface design of Web applications nowadays, especially those involving e-government and e-learning. In this paper we present an Inclusive and Participatory approach to the Cooperative Evaluation of user interfaces. It was carried out with an interdisciplinary research group that aims to include students with disabilities in the university campus and academic life. HCI specialists and non-specialists, with and without visual disabilities, participated as users and observers during the evaluation of a web site designed to be one of the communication channels between the group and the University community. This paper shows the benefits and the challenges of considering the differences among stakeholders in an inclusive and participatory approach, when designing for accessibility within the Universal Design paradigm. Title: MEDICAL INFORMATION PORTALS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PERSONALIZED SEARCH MECHANISMS AND SEARCH INTERFACES Author(s): Andrea Andrenucci Abstract: The World Wide Web has become, since its creation, one of most popular tools for accessing and distributing medical information. The purpose of this paper is to provide indications about how users search for health-related information and how medical portals should be implemented to fit users’ needs. The results are mainly based on the evaluation of a prototype that tailors the retrieval of documents from the Web4health portal to users’ characteristics and information needs with the help of a user model. The evaluation is conducted through a user empirical study based on user observation and in-depth interviews Title: MODELING THE TASK - LEVERAGING KNOWLEDGE-IN-THE-HEAD AT DESIGN TIME Author(s): George Christou, Robert J. K. Jacob and Pericles Leng Cheng Abstract: A key problem in Human Computer Interaction is the evaluation and comparison of tasks that are designed in different interaction styles. A closely related problem is how to create a model of the task that allows this comparison. This paper tries to tackle these two questions. It initially presents a structure (Specific User Knowledge Representation) that allows the creation of task models which allow direct comparisons between different interaction styles. It then presents an evaluation measure based on the structures. The measure is a predictive quantitative one named Learnability The combination of the two allows the researcher or the designer to evaluate an interaction design very early in the design process. Then a case study is presented to show how the measure may be used to create performance predictions for novices. Title: ENWIC: VISUALIZING WIKI SEMANTICS AS TOPIC MAPS - AN AUTOMATED TOPIC DISCOVERY AND VISUALIZATION TOOL Author(s): Cleo Espiritu, Eleni Stroulia and Tapanee Tirapat Abstract: In this paper, we present ENWiC (EduNuggets Wiki Crawler), a framework for intelligent visualization of Wikis. In recent years, e-learning has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional teaching. The effectiveness of e-Learning is depended upon the sharing of information on the web, which makes the web a vast library of information that students and instructors can utilize for educational purposes. Wiki s collaborative authoring nature makes it a very attractive tool to use for e-Learning purposes; however, its text-based navigational structure becomes insufficient as the Wiki grows in size, and this backlash can hinder students from taking full advantage of the information available. ENWiC s goal is to provide student with an intelligent interface for navigating Wikis and other similar large-scale websites. ENWiC make use of graphic organizers to visualize the relationships between content pages so that students can gain a cognitional understanding of the content as they navigating through the Wiki pages. We describe ENWiC s automated visualization process, and its user interfaces for students to view and navigate the Wiki in a meaningful manner, and for instructors to further enhance the visualization. We also discuss our usability study for evaluating ENWiC s effectiveness as a Wiki Interface. Title: E-INSTRUMENTATION: A COLLABORATIVE AND ADAPTATIVE INTELLIGENT HCI FOR REMOTE CONTROL OF DEVICES Author(s): Christophe Gravier and Jacques Fayolle Abstract: What is being discussed here is a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning System. The learning system aims at providing a distant, collaborative and adaptative access to high technological devices. Some strong points in the fields of HCI are to be stressed : the user is expected to access the device while being in a group of users, that is to say "group awareness" must be supported by some mechanisms. In order to get a generic platform, being "instrument-independant", tools are expected to be provided for the graphic user interface to be easily (and without too much user skills) built. Moreover, the notion of sequence of utilization of a device could possibly be a tool enabling new models of evaluation of graphic user interface (consequently HCI) and/or user behaviors. Title: GDIT - TOOL FOR THE DESIGN, SPECIFICATION AND GENERATION OF GOALS DRIVEN USER INTERFACES Author(s): Antonio Carrillo, Juan Falgueras and Antonio Guevara Abstract: This paper presents a style of interaction, called Goals Driven Interaction, a user interface design methology (also called GDI) and a software tool (GDIT) that brings support for it. GDI is a way of interaction for those applications in which a zero learning time is necessary. We also present GDIT, a software tool for the design and specification of any type of user interface regardless of its interaction paradigm. Moreover, this tool is specially appropiated for GDI, and generates user interface prototypes that can be tested early in the developing process. Title: PERSONALIZATION IN INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS - THE GENERATION OF COMPLIANCE? Author(s): Stephen Sobol Abstract: This paper examines applications of personalization in interactive systems and seeks to map success in this area into a general theory of database and narrative. It is argued that conventions of human communication established well before the digital age play a large part in determining user responses to personalization. The analysis offers a logic to help determine when to apply personalization. The results of an experiment to detect personalization effects are reported which provide evidence of the value of personalization. Title: UBIQUITOUS KNOWLEDGE MODELING FOR DIALOGUE SYSTEMS Author(s): Porfírio Filipe and Nuno Mamede Abstract: The main general problem that we want to address is the re-configuration of dialogue systems to work with a generic plug-and-play device. This paper describes our research in designing knowledge-based everyday devices that can be dynamically adapted to spoken dialogue systems. We propose a model for ubiquitous knowledge representation that enables the spoken dialogue system to be aware of the devices belonging to the domain and of the tasks they provide. We consider that each device can be augmented with computational capabilities in order to support its own knowledge model. A knowledge- -based broker adapts the spoken dialogue system to deal with an arbitrary set of devices. The knowledge integration process between the knowledge models of the devices and the knowledge model of the broker is depicted. This process was tested in the home environment domain. Title: A SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT TO EVALUATE DRIVER PERFORMANCES WHILE INTERACTING WITH TELEMATICS SYSTEMS Author(s): Gennaro Costagliola, Sergio Di Martino and Filomena Ferrucci Abstract: The evaluation of user interfaces for vehicular telematics systems is a challenging task, since, due to safety issues, it is necessary to particularly take into account the effects of interaction on user mental workload and thus on driving performances. To this aim, in 2005 we developed a simulation environment specifically conceived for the indoor evaluation of these systems. In this paper we present some significant improvements of that proposal. Among others, we highly enhanced the possibility to assess indoor the navigation module, which is a very distinguish feature. Indeed, the automatic generation of virtual test tracks starting from a cartographical database was improved, giving rise to more realistic scenarios, which increase the sense of presence in the virtual scenario. Moreover, to support data analysts in understanding subjects’ driving performances, we developed a graphical analysis tool, able to provide a clear and deep insight on the high amount of logged data generated by the simulator. Finally, we validated the effectiveness of the framework in measuring on-road driving performances, by employing a set of sixteen subjects, gathering positive results. Title: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE WEB APPLICATION Author(s): Raoudha Ben Djemaa, Ikram Amous and Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou Abstract: Engineering adaptive Web applications imply the development of content that can be automatically adjusted to varying classes of users and their preferences in terms of presentation. To meet this requirement, we present in this paper a generator for adaptive web applications called GIWA. GIWA‘s target is to facilitate the automatic execution of the design and the automatic generation of adaptable web interface. GIWA methodology is based on three levels: semantic level, adaptation level and presentation level. The implementation of GIWA is based on java swing interface to instantiate the models which are translated in XML files. GIWA uses then XSL files to generate the HTML page corresponding to the user. Title: PROACTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH HANDHELD DEVICES Author(s): Luís Carriço, Marco de Sá and Pedro Antunes Abstract: This paper presents a set of components that support psychotherapy processes on mobile and office settings. One provides patients the required access to psychotherapy artefacts, enabling an adequate and tailored aid and motivation for fulfilment of common therapy tasks. Another offers therapists the ability to define and refine the artefacts, in order to present, help and react to the patient according to his/her specific needs and therapy progress. Two other components allow the analysis and annotation of the aforementioned artefacts. All these components run on a PDA base. Evaluation results validated some of the design choices, and indicate future directions and improvements. Title: A MULTIMODAL INTERFACE FOR PERSONALISING SPATIAL DATA IN MOBILE GIS Author(s): Julie Doyle, Joe Weakliam, Michela Bertolotto and David Wilson Abstract: Recently the availability and usage of more advanced mobile devices has significantly increased, with many users accessing information and applications while on the go. However, for users to truly accept and adopt such technologies it is necessary to address human-computer interaction challenges associated with such devices. We are interested in exploring these issues within the context of mobile GIS applications. Current mobile GIS interfaces suffer from two major problems: nterface complexity and information overload. We have developed a novel system that addresses both of these issues. Firstly, our system allows GIS users to interact multimodally, providing them with the flexibility of choosing their preferred mode of interaction for specific tasks in specific contexts. Secondly, it records all such interactions, analyses them and uses them to build individual user profiles. Based on these, our system returns personalised spatial data to users, and hence liminates superfluous information that might be otherwise presented to them. In this paper we describe the system we have developed that combines multimodal interaction with personalised services, and that can be used by mobile users, whether they are novices or professionals within the field of GIS. The advantages of our multimodal GIS interface approach are demonstrated through a user interaction study. Title: EVALUATION OF USER INTERFACES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY Author(s): Lucia Peixe Maziero, Cl´audia Robbi Slutter, Laura Sanchéz García and Cássio da Pieva Ehlers Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of user interfaces of two Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools, ArcView and Spring. This work is related to a specific characteristic of those interfaces, which is to allow the user to view a map. User interfaces were evaluated based on the main cognitive difficulties related to the execution and evaluation bridges employing a cognitive engineering approach and, complementarily, in accordance with the semiotics engineering parameter called "system communicability". Both evaluated systems are generally considered to be quite complex, not only in terms of understanding the interaction elements present in the interface, but also the knowledge embedded in the tasks that can be accomplished by these systems. Although the study described in this work was focused on a single task it confirmed the general opinion about these kinds of applications: a novice user cannot explore them without some assistance from an expert user or by studying books and manuals. Even an expert user usually faces significant difficulties using those GIS tools. Title: CONTEXT OF USE ANALYSIS - ACTIVITY CHECKLIST FOR VISUAL DATA MINING Author(s): Edwige Fangseu Badjio and François Poulet Abstract: In this paper, emphasis is placed on understanding how human behaviour interacts with visual data mining tools in order to improve their design and usefulness. Computer tools that are more useful assist users in achieving desired goals. Our objective is to highlight quality in context of use problems with existing VDM systems that need to be addressed in the design of new VDM systems. For this purpose, we defined a checklist based on activity theory. The responses provided by 15 potential users are summarised as design insights. The users respond to questions selected from the activity checklist. This paper describes the evaluation method and shares lessons learned from its application. Title: INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM: AN ASSESSMENT STRATEGY FOR TUTORING ON-LINE Author(s): Francesco Colace, Massimo De Santo and Mario Vento Abstract: In this paper we introduce a tutoring approach for E-Learning formative process. This approach is strictly related to the assessment phase. Assessment in the context of education is the process of characterizing what a student knows. The reasons to perform evaluation are quite varied, ranging from a need to informally understand student learning progress in a course to a need to characterize student expertise in a subject. Otherwise finding an appropriate assessment tool is a central challenge in designing a tutoring approach. In this paper we propose an assessment method based on the use of ontologies and their representation through a Bayesian Networks. The aim of our approach is the generation of adapted questionnaires in order to test the student’s knowledge in every phase of learning process. Analyzing the results of the evaluation an intelligent tutoring system can help students offering an effective support to learning process and adapting their learning paths. Title: INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM: A MODEL FOR STUDENT TRACKING Author(s): Francesco Colace, Massimo De Santo and Marcello Iacone Abstract: Thanks to the technological improvements of recent years, distance education today represents a real and effective tool for integrate and support the traditional formative processes. In literature it is widely recognized that an important component of this success is related with the ability “to customize” the learning process for the specific needs of a given learner. This ability is still far to have been reached and there is a lot of interest in investigating new approaches and tools to adapt the formative process on the specific individual needs. In this paper we present and discuss a model to capture information about learning style and capabilities of students; this information is successively used to select the most suitable learning objects and to arrange them in “adapted” learning paths Title: FACE RECOGNITION FROM SKETCHES USING ADVANCED CORRELATION FILTERS USING HYBRID EIGENANALYSIS FOR FACE SYNTHESIS Author(s): Yung-hui Li, Marios Savvides and Vijayakumar Bhagavatula Abstract: Most face recognition systems focus on photo-based (or video) face recognition, but there are many law-enforcement applications where a police sketch artist composes a face sketch of the criminal and that is used by the officers to looks for the criminal. Currently state-of-the-art research approach transforms all test face images into sketches then perform recognition on sketch domain using the sketch composite, however there is one flaw in such approach which hinders it from being deployed fully automatic in the field, due to the fact that generating a sketch image from a surveillance footage will vary greatly due to illumination variations of the face in the footage under different lighting conditions. This will result imprecise sketches for real time recognition. In our approach we propose the opposite which is a better approach; we propose to generate a realistic face image from the composite sketch using a Hybrid subspace method and then build an illumination tolerant correlation filter which can recognize the person under different illumination variations. We show experimental results on our approach on the CMU PIE (Pose Illumination and Expression) database on the effectiveness of our novel approach. Title: TOWARDS AN ONTOLOGY OF LMS - A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Author(s): Gabriela Díaz-Antón and María A. Pérez Abstract: Learning Management Systems (LMS) are used widely to support training in an organization. Selecting and implementing an LMS can have an impact in cost, time and customer satisfaction in the organization. Due to the existence of a variety of definitions on the subject of elearning and LMS, it is necessary a conceptual framework using an ontology. This article presents a research in progress whose final objective is to develop a method to select, implement and integrate an LMS into an organization with a systemic quality approach. As a first step, in this article is presented an ontology to conceptualize the terms associated to LMS, unifying them through their relations. Title: AN EVALUATION OF A VISUAL QUERY LANGUAGE FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Haifa Elsidani Elariss, Souheil Khaddaj and Ramzi Haraty Abstract: In recent years, many non-expert user applications have been developed to query Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS are also being used to browse and view data about space and time thus naming them spatio-temporal databases. Many approaches to querying spatio-temporal databases have been recently proposed. The Location Based Services which are considered as part of the spatio-temporal field, concern the user who asks questions related to his current position by using a mobile phone. Our research aims at designing and developing an Intelligent Visual Query Language (IVQL) that allows users to query databases based on their location. The databases are installed on a GIS server computer. The queries are sent to the server from a mobile phone through the Short Messages System (SMS). With the emerging Globalization of user interfaces, IVQL is meant to have a global and international user interface that could be understood by all users worldwide who are from different countries with different cultures and languages. We propose a user interface consisting of smiley icons that are used to represent and build an international query language. Smiley icons enable the users to access data and build queries easily and in a user-friendly way. A query is formulated by means of selecting the smiley icon that represents the operation to be executed then selecting the theme or object to be found. IVQL is an expandable language. It can include as many icons as needed whether they represent themes or objects. Hence, IVQL is considered to be an intelligent query language. The visual query language and its user interface are explained. The IVQL model is described. The query formulation is illustrated using a sample GIS system for tourists. The IVQL user interface and query formulation can be applied to other fields such as Management Information Systems specifically in Customer Relationship Management, air traffic and bioinformatics. We then conclude about our future work. Title: A FUZZY-BASED DISTANCE TO IMPROVE EMPIRICAL METHODS FOR MENU CLUSTERING Author(s): Cristina Coppola, Gennaro Costagliola, Sergio Di Martino, Filomena Ferrucci and Tiziana Pacelli Abstract: An effective menu organization is fundamental to obtain usable applications. A common practice to achieve this is to adopt empirical methods in the menu design phase, by requesting a number of intended final users to provide their ideal tasks arrangements. However, to improve the effectiveness of this approach, it is necessary to filter results, by identifying and discarding data coming from subjects whose mental models are too weak on the considered domain. To this aim, in the paper, we propose a formal tool suited to support menu designers, which is based on a fuzzy-based distance we defined. This measure can be easily calculated on the empirical datasets, thanks to a specifically conceived supporting application we developed. As a result, by exploiting the proposed solution, menu designers can rely on a formal tool to evaluate significance of empirical data, thus leading towards more effective menu clustering. Title: AUTOMATIC FEEDBACK GENERATION - USING ONTOLOGY IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM FOR BOTH LEARNER AND AUTHOR BASED ON STUDENT MODEL Author(s): Pooya Bakhtyari Abstract: One of the essential elements needed for effective learning is feedback. Feedback can be given to learners during learning but also to authors during course development. But producing valuable feedback is often time consuming and makes delays. So with this reason and the others like incomplete and inaccurate feedback generating by human, we think that it’s a good idea if we could generate feedback automatically for both learner and author in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that is one of the main tutoring and guidance tool in these systems. For the development of these mechanisms, we used ontology to create a rich supply of feedback. We designed all components of the ITS like course materials and learner model based on ontology to share common understanding of the structure of information among other software agents and make it easier to analyze the domain knowledge. With ontologies we specify (1) the knowledge to be learned (domain and task knowledge) and (2) how the knowledge should be learned (education). We add all the factors that is needed for a good feedback generating in the learner model. We will develop algorithms with which we automatically create valuable feedback to learners during learning, and to authors during course development. In this paper we also show a mechanism to make reason from the resources and learner model that it made feedbacks based on learner. ICEIS Doctoral Consortium Title: A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING ENTERPRISE RESOURCES PLANNING (ERP) SYSTEMS SUCCESS: AN EXAMINATION OF ITS ASPECT FOCUSING ON EXTERNAL CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES Author(s): Princely Ifinedo Abstract: Doctoral Consortium: Assessing the success of information systems (IS) is a critical issue to researchers and practitioners. IS evaluations to some practitioners is a nightmare because of the lack of knowledge with regard to such issues. This is because differing organizational and external environmental contexts may exist for firms vis-à-vis the adopted technologies or software. Among the fastest growing IS globally are enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems. ERP systems are complex, making it even harder for practitioners with limited skills to assess the success of such systems in their contexts. Our notion of contexts encompasses the external and internal (organizational) levels. This paper is motivated by paucity of research in this area. In general, we propose an integrative framework for assessing ERP systems success that benefits from other theoretical models. In particular, this paper presents the findings regarding the influence of some contextual factors on ERP systems success measurement. Our contributions in this area of research are discussed. Title: A MULTIPLE CLASSIFIER SYSTEM FOR INTRUSION DETECTION USING BEHAVIOR KNOWLEDGE SPACES AND TEMPORAL INFORMATION Author(s): Claudio Mazzariello and Carlo Sansone Abstract: As modern enterprises rely more and more on the services provided by means of complex and pervasive network infrastructures, the urge of coping with network security emerges clearer and clearer; the reliability, dependability and trustworthiness of the provided services, and the privacy of the exchanged information, are issues an enterprise cannot avoid to consider. Due to the very huge amount of data to deal with, network traffic analysis is a task which requires the aid of automated tools; the detection of network intrusions might be regarded, to some extent, as the practice of telling attack packets apart from legal and authorized traffic, hence it ends up to be nothing more than a canonical classification problem, where network packets are the data to be classified, and the outcome assesses whether each packet belongs to an attack pattern or not, and eventually associates it to one out of K know attack classes. As network attacks are usually spread over often long packet sequences, we propose to analyze time series of events rather than a single packet, in order to take into account the intrinsic nature of the problem under exam. Furthermore, by observing that carefully combining several base classifiers it is possible to achieve better detection results, we propose an approach to intrusion detection based on multiple classifiers detecting attacks by observing temporal sequences of events. Title: A METHOD FOR INTEGRATING AND MIGRATING ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS BASED ON MIDDLEWARE STYLES Author(s): Simon Giesecke Abstract: The PhD project described here devises an architecture development method called MIDARCH for selecting a middleware platform in Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and migration projects. The method uses a taxonomy of middleware platforms based on the architectural styles that are induced by middleware platforms (MINT Styles). The choice of a style is based on extra-functional properties of the resulting systems. The method builds upon the ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471. The major goal of the method is to improve development process productivity and predictability through increasing reuse of design knowledge between projects. The key feature of the proposed method is that it enables binding of design knowledge to MINT styles. Title: TOWARDS A COMPLETE APPROACH TO GENERATE SYSTEM TEST CASES Author(s): Javier J. Gutiérrez Abstract: System testing allows to verify the behavioural of system under test and to guarantee the satisfaction of its requirements. The expected behaviour of a software system is stored in its functional requirements. Thus those requirements are the most valuable start point for generating test cases. We need approaches, process and tools to drive the process of generation of test cases from software requirements. This paper resumes the objectives and results of our thesis project focused in defining a process to derive test cases from functional requirements expressed as use cases. Title: MODEL ANALYSIS OF ARCHITECTURES FOR E-COMMERCE SYSTEMS ON THE ELECTRICITY RETAILER MARKET Author(s): Victor Manuel Oliveira Cruz dos Santos Abstract: A UML model of the electricity retailer has been achieved, next step is to test interfaces model to limit conditions and analyse its balance between the business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-client (B2C) sides of the model. Follows the internal units communication and process analysis to identify compensation limits of internal units to external conditions. Title: AN ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE-SUPORTED CUSTOMER LOYALTY SCHEMES - ARCHITECTURAL FRAMEWORK AND ASSOCIATED BUSINESS MODELS Author(s): Christian Zeidler Abstract: This paper presents a proposed research work in the area of mobile information system applications for marketing purposes, in particular the application to business-to-consumer loyalty schemes. The introductory section gives an overview of the application domain and introduces the different aspects of relationship marketing and customer loyalty as well as the potentials offered by using mobile technology in supporting such schemes. The second section presents the current stage and proposed methodology for the research that consists of designing and evaluating a framework for mobile loyalty schemes encompassing an architectural design based on the 4+1 view model of software architectures and the development of related business models, both with respect to the particularities of mobile information systems concerning technical as well as user specific issues. Mobile information systems in this context are to be seen as client/server platforms supporting multi-channel user interfaces with an emphasis on the mobile phone as a client platform. In the third section, based on the presented methodology, a conclusion and overview of the expected artefacts and results is given. Title: ONTOLOGY-SUPPORTED WEB SEARCHING Author(s): Vicky Dritsou Abstract: In this paper we define our doctoral research problem of using ontologies to support indexing and information retrieval on the Web. Previous works have shown that we can benefit from this approach. We specifically intend to focus on taxonomies and address issues of indexing and retrieval effectiveness in view of the invalid compound term problem, as well as explore the combined use of logic-based and distance-based approaches to ontology mapping. Title: TASK SWITCHING IN DETAIL - TASK IDENTIFICATION, SWITCHING STRATEGIES AND INFLUENCING FACTORS Author(s): Olha Bondarenko Abstract: In this paper the first stages of a project that aims at supporting document management of information workers in complex multitask environments are presented. A rich sample of qualitative data was obtained from an observational study. At the first stage of data analysis we identified task switching on the level that it was perceived by the subjects. The factors that surrounded the task switching process have been the focus of the second stage. Various aspects of task switching such as environment, reasons, switching strategies and subjects' activities were categorized. We then compared how the use of various task switching strategies differed depending on these factors. Although the data analysis has not yet been complete, it was clear that subjects applied different strategies depending on whether they switched tasks on their own will or were forced to do it. Moreover, the use of strategies differed in physical and digital domains. The outline of an expected outcome and the research plans are discussed. Title: MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES IN SOFTWARE PROJECTS: IMPROVING SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND REPRESENTATION IN MULTIPROJECT ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Fran J. Ruiz-Bertol Abstract: Management becomes an important issue in software project development. Unfortunately, it still arise too many management problems in current software projects. The most notorious consequences of these drawbacks are overruns in schedule and budget, and an outcome –the final product or service– that does not fulfil the initially specified features and/or quality. The resolution of these problems comes up focusing on critical success factors, as adequate communication channels or realistic budget and schedule. However, these factors do not provide specific solutions to overruns or insufficient features, but the key factors to solve management problems in software projects. The dissertation presented here aims to provide particular solutions to management problems. Specifically, we focus on two aspects of software management: the representation of project data, and the management issues in multiproject software development. Title: GENRE AND ONTOLOGY BASED BUSINESS INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK (GOBIAF) Author(s): Turo Kilpeläinen Abstract: This thesis proposal introduces a plan for developing a genre and ontology based business information architecture (GOBIA) framework and its development method. The framework builds upon the mutual and reported high cohesion of the business (processes) and information needed to operate the business to form the basis for total Enterprise Architecture (EA) development. As most of the present architectural models are systems architecture oriented, there seem to be a clear need for efficient, but still comprehensive tool to support domain analysis and results representation from the viewpoint of business critical information in the architecture development. In this way, organisations may have better control over their architectural descriptions instead of being forced to adopt information and process models embedded in enterprise system packages like ERP systems. The fundamental premise is, thus, to support the development of holistic information management principles in geographically dispersed environments where business processes cross the boundaries of number of business units. Thereby, the GOBIA framework will contribute as a shared mechanism to support BIA-based strategic and operational thinking that forces dispersed business units to conceive, understand, structure, and present local information (in conceptual level), their interconnections, and level of management through a well-defined development method and principles. Title: TEMPORAL INFORMATION IN NATURAL LANGUAGES - IS TIME IN ROMANIAN THE SAME? Author(s): Corina Forăscu Abstract: Many Natural Language Processing applications rely on the temporal information in texts. As currently to our knowledge, there are no software tools to deal with and further use the temporal information in Romanian texts, we decided to study, encode, (automatically) detect and use in other NLP applications the temporal information in NL when used in Romanian or in conjunction with other languages. The paper presents work-in-progress towards the final PhD dissertation. Title: SEMANTIC COHERENCE IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Author(s): Michael Skusa Abstract: During software engineering processes lots of artifacts are produced to document the development of a concrete software. For pairs of artifacts which are related with respect to their meaning for the development process, but which differ in their formal foundation, formal associations often do not exist or are not documented. This leads to gaps in the documentation of the software engineering process and a decrease of traceability. The ideas behind the software are harder to understand and because of this missing understanding a consistent extension, modification and usage of the software becomes hard as well. In this paper a novel approach is presented to close gaps in the documentation of software engineering processes. Formal representations from various sources, which are used during the development process, are integrated on a semi-formal level. In a first step artifacts with different formal foundation are classified according to their role in the current development situation. These classified artifacts, which will be called assets, share a common representation. Using this representation simple asset descriptions can be linked together in a second step. They become part of complex asset descriptions. The approach is semi-formal because the kinds of associations which can be defined within this asset representation can vary in their degree of formal foundation. The simultaneous usage of different formalisms during software development is supported, even if a formal integration is not possible or has not been attempted before. Closing gaps in the documentation of software engineering processes using this approach improves traceability of development decisions, simplifies round trip engineering and enables new kinds of decision support for software developers. This approach allows to turn support functions of common software development tools, e.g. suggestions for code completion, into a generalized support of “model completion” or “design completion” which will improve development productivity and documentation quality substantially. Title: ALIGNING NETWORK SECURITY TO CORPORATE GOALS: INVESTING ON NETWORK SECURITY Author(s): Mathews Zanda Nkhoma Abstract: In recent years, information and telecommunications technology and services have expanded at an astonishing rate. The public and private sectors increasingly depend on information and telecommunications systems capabilities and services. In the face of rapid technological change, public and private organizations are undergoing significant changes in the way they conduct their business activities, including the use of wide area networking via public networks. These changes include mandates to reduce expenses, increase revenue, and, at the same time to compete in a global marketplace. Even during prosperous economic times, security has not been easy to sell to senior management unless the organization has recognized that it has been the victim of a major security incident. In today’s business environment it is difficult to obtain senior management approval for the expenditure of valuable resources to “guarantee” that a potentially disastrous event will not occur that could affect the ultimate survivability of the organization. Workshop on Wireless Information Systems (WIS-2006) Title: ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS LANS THAT SUPPORT FAULT TOLERANCE Author(s): Ghassan Kbar and Wathiq Mansoor Abstract: Deploying wireless LANs (WLAN) at large scale is mainly affected by reliability, availability, and performance. These parameters will be a concern for most of managers who wanted to deploy WLANs. In order to address these concerns, new radio resource management techniques with fault tolerance can be used in a new generation of wireless LAN equipment. These techniques would include distributed dynamic channel assignment, sharing load among Access Points (AP), and supporting fault tolerance. Changing from the relatively static radio resource management techniques generally in use today to dynamic methods has been addressed in previous research article using centralized management, but it suffer from network availability problem. In [10] a new distributed management for dynamic channel assignment has been suggested. In this paper the idea has been extended to support fault tolerance, which improves the network availability and reliability compared to centralized management techniques. In addition, it will help in increasing network capacities and improve its performance especially in large-scale WLANs. The new system has been analyzed and according to binomial distribution results showed improvement of network performance compared to static load distribution. Title: ULTRA-WIDEBAND INTERFERENCE MITIGATION USING CROSS-LAYER COGNITIVE RADIO Author(s): Rashid A. Saeed, Sabira Khatun., Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali and Mohd. Khazani Abdullah Abstract: Cognitive Radio (CR) is an emerging approach for a more efficient usage of the precious radio spectrum resources, which it considers an expanded view of the wireless channel by managing and adapting various dimensions of time, frequency, space, power, and coding. In this paper, we define the system requirements for cognitive radio, as well as the general architecture and basic physical and link layer functions. In order to self-adapt the UWB pulse shape parameters and maximize system capacity while co-exist with in-band legacy NB systems (WiFi and FWA) in the surrounding environments. Title: A DISTRIBUTED BROADCAST ALGORITHM FOR AD HOC NETWORKS Author(s): Li Layuan, Li Chunlin and Sun Qiang Abstract: Abstract—In mobile ad hoc networks, many unicast and multicast protocols depend on broadcast mechanism to finish control and route establishment functionality. In a straightforward broadcast by flooding, each node will retransmit a message to all it neighbors until the message has been propagated to the entire network. So it will become very inefficient and will be easy to result the broadcast storm problem. Thus an efficient broadcast algorithm should be used to less the broadcast storm caused by broadcast. Due to the dynamic nature of ad hoc networks, global information of the network is difficult to obtain, so the algorithm should be distributed. In this paper, an efficient distributed heuristic-based algorithm is presented. The algorithm is based on joint distance-counter threshold scheme. It runs in a distributed manner by each node in the network without needing any global information. Each node in an ad hoc network hears the message from its neighbors and decides whether to retransmit or not according to the signal strength and the number of the receiving messages. By using the JDCT algorithm, it’s easy to find the nodes that consist of the vertices of the hexagonal lattice to cover the whole networks. The algorithm is very simple and it is easy to operate and has a good performance in mobile wireless communication environments. A comparison among several existing algorithms is conducted. Simulation results show that the new algorithm is efficient and robust. Title: HIGH PERFORMANCE IN A WIRED-AND-WIRELESS INTEGRATED IC CARD TICKET SYSTEM Author(s): Shiibashi Akio, Tadahiko Kadoya and Kinji Mori Abstract: Automatic Fare Collection Systems (AFCSs) require high performance and high reliability. The automatic fare collection gates (AFCGs) must let the passengers pass as quickly as possible because the congested passengers rush to them during rush hours. High performance on wireless communications lowers reliability. It had been a problem when a company was developing a wireless IC card ticket system. "Autonomous Decentralized Processing Technology" and "Decentralized Algorithm on the Fare Calculations with an IC Card and AFCGs" were designed as the solutions. This paper introduces the two models – the decentralized process and the centralized one – to simulate the performances and shows the satisfactory results on the decentralized one. These technologies are implemented to the practical system and have proven the effectiveness. Title: IN&OUT: A CONTEXT AWARE APPLICATION BASED ON RFID LOCALIZATION TECHNOLOGY Author(s): Alessandro Andreadis, Fabio Burroni and Pasquale Fedele Abstract: The wide adoption of wireless technologies has modified the typology of services that can be offered by information systems. Mobile users need ad-hoc information based on location and usage context, in order to minimize network usage and achieve service efficiency and effectiveness. This paper presents an information architecture providing context-aware and location-based contents to users exploring a museum and/or a related archaeological excavation. While moving around, the user is equipped with a client device and his position is precisely detected through RFID technology. Thus the system is able to suggest the user for specific multimedia contents, letting him select the ones to be downloaded through wireless connections. The system offers the user with a constant association between objects of interest and the place they were recovered from the excavation. Thus the visitor inside a museum room can have a visualization or a hypothetical reconstruction of the place of recovery. Title: EXPERIENCES WITH THE TINYOS COMMUNICATION LIBRARY Author(s): Paolo Corsini, Paolo Masci and Alessio Vecchio Abstract: TinyOS is a useful resource for developers of sensor networks. The operating system includes ready-made software components that enable rapid generation of complex software architectures. In this paper we describe the lessons gained from programming with the TinyOS communication library. In particular, we try to rationalize existing functionalities, and we present our solutions in the form of a communication library, called TComm-Lib. Title: A REFLECTIVE MIDDLEWARE ARCHITECTURE FOR ADAPTIVE MOBILE COMPUTING APPLICATIONS Author(s): Celso Maciel da Costa, Marcelo da Silva Strzykalski and Guy Bernard Abstract: Mobile computing applications are required to operate in environments in which the availability for resources and services may change significantly during system operation. As a result, mobile computing applications need to be capable of adapting to these changes to offer the best possible level of service to their users. However, traditional middleware is limited in its capability of adapting to the environment changes and different users requirements. Computational Reflection paradigm has been used in the design and implementation of adaptive middleware architectures. In this paper, we propose an adaptive middleware architecture based on reflection, which can be used to develop adaptive mobile applications. The reflection-based architecture is compared to a component-based architecture from a quantitative perspective. The results suggest that middleware based on Computational Reflection can be used to build mobile adaptive applications that require only a very small overhead in terms of running time as well as memory space. Title: MIDDLEWARE SUPPORT FOR TUNABLE ENCRYPTION Author(s): Stefan Lindskog, Reine Lundin and Anna Brunstrom Abstract: To achieve an appropriate tradeoff between security and performance for wireless applications, a tunable and differential treatment of security is required. In this paper, we present a tunable encryption service designed as a middleware that is based on a selective encryption paradigm. The core component of the middleware provides block-based selective encryption. Although the selection of which data to encrypt is made by the sending application and is typically content-dependent, the representation used by the core component is application and content-independent. This frees the selective decryption module at the receiver from the need for application or content-specific knowledge. The sending application specifies the data to encrypt either directly or through a set of high-level application interfaces. A prototype implementation of the middleware is described along with an initial performance evaluation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed generic middleware service offers a high degree of security adaptiveness at a low cost. Title: APPLYING MUPE CONTEXT PRODUCERS IN DEVELOPING LOCATION AND CONTEXT AWARE APPLICATIONS Author(s): Kimmo Koskinen, Kari Heikkinen and Jouni Ikonen Abstract: Location based services (LBS) and applications have recently emerged as a significant application area. However, location based services and application could also benefit of the dimensions of the contextual data. Multi-User Publishing Environment (MUPE) has a built-in context mediation capability that allows the application developer to concentrate on using contextual data and thus enabling rapid prototyping of location and context aware applications. In this paper MUPE context producers are applied so that the applications can exploit the different available context in a manner suitable to their logic. This paper purposes to demonstrate that context mediation is a powerful tool to speed up the prototyping process and to enable an efficient application development. Workshop on Modelling, Simulation,Verification and Validation of Enterprise Information Systems (MSVVEIS-2006) Title: AN ONTOLOGY BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR INTEGRATING ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS Author(s): Razika Driouche, Zizette Boufaїda and Fabrice Kordon Abstract: Today, companies investigate various domains of collaborative business-to-business in e-commerce. They have to look inward to their applications and processes. These applications must be able to cooperate dynamically. This leads to a rise of cooperative business processes, which need the integration of autonomous and heterogeneous applications. However, currently existing approaches for application integration lack an adequate specification of the semantics of the terminology that leads to inconsistent interpretations. In this paper, we propose a formal solution to the problem of application integration and we reflect upon the suitability of the ontology as a candidate for solving the problem of heterogeneity and ensure greater interoperability between applications. Title: CSPJADE: ARCHITECTURAL DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EMBEDDED SYSTEM SOFTWARE USING A CSP PARADIGM BASED GENERATION TOOL CODE Author(s): Agustín A. Escámez, Kawthar Bengazhi, Juan A. Holgado, Manuel I. Capel Abstract: A code generation tool for the development of control system software based on an architectural view of distributed real-time systems as a set of communicating parallel processes is presented. The design of the entire system under modelling is firstly carried out by obtaining a complete system specification by using the CSP+T process algebra and then, an architectural design of the entire system under modelling is done using the CSPJade graphical tool. The implementation of the concurrent set of processes is finally tackled by using the JSCP library. CSPJade defines a graphical abstract model of processes similar to the semantic of CSP+T, so a translation of modelling entities into CSP+T processes and vice-versa is easy to achieve and becomes less error prone, specially when there are multiple levels of nested processes. CSPJade allows the designer to deploy a set of reusable software components together with a well defined interface whose connectors are mapped into some fixed ports. In the architectural software design model that supports the proposed method, processes inter-communicate over channels and processes execute in parallel using the “parallel” construct provided by the CSP programming paradigm, which is subsequently mapped in the equivalent construct of the JCSP library (, one of the target CSP library that can be used with the tool). A project designed with CSPJade can be saved and reused thanks to the newly proposed java project model (JPM) structures, being these composed of the smallest possible units of information, which are called the java container model (JCM) structures, which implement the desired functionality of any given component of the methodology. Both structures JPM and JCM are written in the well known and extended XML write format. Title: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRECEDENT MODEL FOR THE LATVIA FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESSES Author(s): Inita Sile and Sergejs Arhipovs Abstract: The question of nowadays is the application of information technologies in every sector that enables to improve the functionality of system performance. One of the sectors is forestry – in this sector it is essential to manage the forest territories appropriately. As a result, it is possible to develop the system by means of information technologies that would help the forest experts to manage the forest territories in order there would be no lack of timber resources. To develop such system it is necessary, first of all, to perform the analysis of forestry, as a result of which the precedent models are developed. The specification and notation of Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used in the development of precedent models. Consequently, the system requirements are defined according to which it is possible to design and develop the system. Title: THE STATIC MODEL OF LATVIAN FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CAPITAL VALUE ESTIMATION Author(s): Salvis Dagis and Sergejs Arhipovs Abstract: Latvia, where forests cover up to 45% of territory, might be proud of its forests. Forestry is the most significant export sector in Latvia and in total forestry provides up to 14% of GDP. Regardless of the significant felling areas, there can be observed more increment than there are trees cut. The main aim of forestry policy is to ensure the sustainable management of forests and forest lands, therefore it is necessary to evaluate the current situation and think ahead in order to plan the cutting of forests. Title: SIMULATION MODELLING PERFORMANCE DYNAMICS OF SHIP GAS TURBINE AT THE LOAD OF THE SHIP’S SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR Author(s): Josko Dvornik and Eno Tireli Abstract: Simulation modelling, performed by System Dynamics Modelling Approach-MIT and intensive use of digital computers, which implies the extensive use of, nowadays inexpensive and powerful personal computers (PCs), is one of the most convenient and most successful scientific methods of analysis of performance dynamics of nonlinear and very complex natural technical and organizational systems [1]. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the successful application of system dynamics simulation modelling at analyzing performance dynamics of a complex system of ship’s propulsion system. Ship turbine generator is a complex nonlinear system which needs to be analysed systematically, i.e. as an entirety composed of a number of sub-systems and elements which are through cause-consequence links (UVP) connected by retroactive circles (KPD), both within the propulsion system and with the corresponding environment. Indirect procedures of analysis of performance dynamics of turbine generator systems used so far, which procedures are based on the use of standard, usually linear methods, as Laplace’s transformation, transfer functions and stability criteria, do not meet the current needs for information about performance dynamics of nonlinear turbine generator systems. Since the ship turbine generator systems are complex and the efficient application of scientific investigation methods called qualitative and quantitative simulation methodology of System dynamics will be presented in this work. It will enable the production and application of more and varied kinds of simulation models of the observed situations, and enable the continuous computer simulation using high speed and precise digital computers, which will significantly contribute to the acquisition of new information about nonlinear characteristic of performance dynamics of turbine generator systems in the process of designing and education. Successful realization of this work, or qualitative and quantitative scientific determination of a complex phenomenon of performance dynamics of load of the ship electric network, or ship turbine generator system, will give a significant scientific contribution to the fundamental and applied technical scientific fields, and to interdisciplinary sub-directions of maritime transport, exploitation of ship drive systems, mariners education, automatics, theory of management and regulation, expert systems, intelligent systems, computerization and information systems. The contribution may also be significant in the process of education of the present and future university mechanic and electric engineers in the field of simulation modelling of complex organisational, natural and technical systems. Title: THE USEFULNESS OF A GENERIC PROCESS MODEL STRUCTURE Author(s): Alta van der Merwe, Paula Kotzé and Johannes Cronjé Abstract: Defining process model structures for reuse in different activities, such as re-engineering, may seem to be an innovative idea. There is, however, a danger that these models are created with no proof that they are useful in practice. In this paper, we give an overview of a re-engineering procedure developed from existing reengineering procedures combined with Goldratt’s theory of constraints, to investigate the usefulness of process model structures in such an activity. The usefulness is measured against an ordinal measurement defined. Title: HOW STYLE CHECKING CAN IMPROVE BUSINESS PROCESS MODELS Author(s): Volker Gruhn and Ralf Laue Abstract: Business process analysts prefer to build business process models (BPM) using graphical languages like BPMN or UML Activity Diagrams. Several researchers have presented validation methologies for such BPMs. In order to use these verification techniques for BPMs written in graphical languages, the models must be translated into the input language of a model checker or simulation tool. By analyzing 285 BPMs (modelled as Event driven Process Chains (EPC)), we found that checking restrictions for "good modeling style" before starting the translation process has three positive effects: It can make the translation algorithm much easier, can improve the quality of the BPM by substituting "bad constructs" automatically and can help to identify erroneous models. Title: DESIGN AND EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR LAYERED ARCHITECTURES Author(s): Aurona Gerber, Andries Barnard and Alta van der Merwe Abstract: The architecture of a system is an indispensable mechanism required to map business processes to information systems. The terms architecture, layered architecture and system architecture are often used by researchers, as well as system architects and business process analysts inconsistently. Furthermore, the concept architecture is commonplace in discussions of software engineering topics such as business process management and system engineering, but agreedupon design and evaluation criteria are lacking in literature. Such criteria are on the one hand valuable for the determination of system architectures during the design phase, and on the other hand, provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of already existing architectures. The goal of this paper is thus to extract from literature and best-practices such a list of criteria. We applied these findings to two prominent examples of layered architectures, notably the ISO/OSI network model and the Semantic Web language architecture. Title: MODEL CHECKING SUSPENDIBLE BUSINESS PROCESSES VIA STATECHART DIAGRAMS AND CSP Author(s): W. L. Yeung, K. R. P. H. Leung, Ji Wang and Wei Dong Abstract: When modelling business processes in statechart diagrams, history states can be useful for handling suspension and resumption, as illustrated by the examples in this paper. However, previous approaches to model checking statechart diagrams often ignore history states. We enhanced such a previous approach based on Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) and developed a support tool for it. Title: A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH FOR AIRPORT TERMINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Author(s): Ioanna E. Manataki and Konstantinos G. Zografos Abstract: Performance modelling of highly complex large-scale systems constitutes a challenging task. The airport terminal is a highly dynamic and stochastic system with a large number of entities and activities involved. In this context, developing models/tools for assessing and monitoring airport terminal perform-ance with respect to various measures of effectiveness is critical for effective decision-making in the field of airport operations planning, design and man-agement. The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for the development of a generic, yet flexible tool for the analysis and evaluation of airport terminal performance. The tool provides the capability of being easily customizable to the specific needs and characteristics of any airport terminal. For the development of the tool, a hierarchical model structure is adopted, which enables a module-based modelling approach. The underlying theoretical basis used to model airport terminal domain is System Dynamics. Title: PIXL: APPLYING XML STANDARDS TO SUPPORT THE INTEGRATION OF ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR PROTOCOLS Author(s): María del Mar Gallardo, Jesús Martínez, Pedro Merino, Pablo Nuñez and Ernesto Pimentel Abstract: This paper presents our experiences on using XML technologies and standards for the integration of analysis tools for protocols. The core proposal consists in the design of a new XML-based language named PiXL (Protocol Interchange using XML Languages), responsible for interchanging the whole specification of the protocol (data and control) among different existing tools. The structure and flexibility of XML has proven to be very useful when implementing new tools such as abstract model checkers. In addition, the suitability of the proposal has been applied to achieve a new kind of analysis, where PiXL and new MDA methodologies have been proposed to build integrated environments for reliability and performance analysis of Active Network protocols. Title: SPECIFICATION OF DETERMINISTIC REGULAR LIVENESS PROPERTIES Author(s): Frank Nießner Abstract: Great many systems are formally describable by nondeterministic Buechi automata. The Complexity of model checking then essentially depends on deciding subset conditions on languages which are acceptable by these automata and which represent the system behavior and the desired properties of the system. The involved complementation process may lead to an exponential blow-up in the size of the automata. Therefore, we investigate a rich subclass of properties, called deterministic regular liveness properties, for which the above mentioned blow-up can be avoided. In this paper we will present a characterization that describes the structure of this language class and their automata. Title: HOW TO DETECT RISKS WITH A FORMAL APPROACH? FROM PROPERTY SPECIFICATION TO RISK EMERGENCE Author(s): Vincent Chapurlat and Saber Aloui Abstract: The research work at the origin of this paper has two goals. The first one is to define a modelling framework allowing representing a system by using multi views and multi languages paradigms in a unified way and including knowledge and model enrichment by defining properties. The second one consists to define some formal properties verification mechanisms in order to help a modeller to detect dangerous situations and inherent risks which can occur to the system. The same mechanisms are then used to improve the quality of the representation which is the classical verification goal. This paper focus then on the set of formal properties modelling concepts and analysis mechanisms mainly based on Conceptual Graphs, which are proposed. In order to illustrate these concepts, the approach is currently applied to healthcare organisations. Title: TESTING OF SEMANTIC PROPERTIES IN XML DOCUMENTS Author(s): Dominik Jungo, David Buchmann and Ulrich Ultes-Nitsche Abstract: XML is a markup language with a clear hierarchical structure. Validating an XML document against a schema document is an important part in the work flow incorporating XML documents. Most approaches use grammar based schema languages. Grammar based schemas are well suited for the syntax definition of an XML document, but come to their limits when semantic properties are to be defined. This paper presents a rule based, first order schema language, complementary to grammar based schema languages, demonstrating its strength in defining semantic properties for an XML document. Title: TOWARDS MODEL CHECKING C CODE WITH OPEN/CÆSAR Author(s): María del Mar Gallardo, Pedro Merino and David Sanán Abstract: Verification technologies, like model checking, have obtained great success in the context of formal description techniques (FDTs), however there is still a lack of tools for applying the same approach to real programming languages. One promising approach in this second scenario is the use of well known and stable software architectures originally designed for FDTs, like OPEN/CÆSAR. OPEN/CÆSAR is based on a core notation for Labeled Transitions Systems (LTSs) and contains several modules that can help to implement tasks such as reachability analysis, bisimulation, test generation. All these functions are accessible with a standard API that makes possible the generation of specific model checkers for new languages. In this paper, we discuss how to construct a model checker for C distributed applications using OPEN/CÆSAR. Title: MODELLING HISTORY-DEPENDENT BUSINESS PROCESSES Author(s): Kees van Hee, Olivia Oanea, Alexander Serebrenik, Natalia Sidorova and Marc Voorhoeve Abstract: Choices in business processes are often based on the process history saved as a log-file listing events and their time stamps. In this paper we introduce a finite-path variant of the timed propositional logics with past for specifying guards in business process models. The novelty is due to the introduction of boundary points start and now corresponding to the starting and current observation points. Reasoning in presence of boundary points requires three-valued logics as one needs to distinguish between temporal formulas that hold, those that do not hold and unknown'' ones corresponding to open cases''. Finally, we extend a sub-language of the logics to take uncertainty into account. Title: EFFICIENT INTERPRETATION OF LARGE QUANTIFICATIONS IN A PROCESS ALGEBRA Author(s): Benoît Fraikin and Marc Frappier Abstract: This paper describes three optimization techniques for a process algebra interpreter called EB3PAI. This interpreter supports the EB3 method, which was developed for the purpose of automating the development of information systems through code generation and efficient interpretation of abstract specifications. EB3PAI supports non-deterministic process expressions, automatic internal action execution and quantified operators in order to allow efficient execution of large process expressions involving thousands of persistent entities in an information system. For general information system patterns, EB3PAI executes in linear time with respect to the number of terms and operators in the process expression and in logarithmic time with respect to the number of entities in the system. Title: ARCHITECTURAL HANDLING OF MANAGEMENT CONCERNS IN SERVICE-DRIVEN BUSINESS PROCESSES Author(s): Ahmed Al-Ghamdi and José Luiz Fiadeiro Abstract: To be effective and meet organisational goals, service-driven applications require a clear specification of the management concerns that establish business level agreements among the parties involved in given business processes. In this paper, we show how such concerns can be modelled explicitly and separately from other concerns through a set of new semantic primitives that we call management laws. These primitives support a methodological approach that consists in extracting management concerns from business rules and representing them explicitly as connectors in the conceptual architecture of the application. Title: AN OBSERVATION-BASED ALGORITHM FOR WORKFLOW MATCHING Author(s): Kais Klai, Samir Tata and Issam Chebbi Abstract: The work we present here is in line with the CoopFlow approach dedicated for inter-organizational workflow cooperation that consists of workflow advertisement, workflow interconnection, and workflow cooperation. This approach is inspired by the Service-oriented Architecture and allows for partial visibility of workflows and their resources. Varying degrees of visibility of workflows enable organizations to retain required levels of privacy and security of internal workflows. Degrees of visibility are described in term of an abstraction of workflow's behavior using symbolic observation graph. The building of such graph uses the Ordered Binary Decision Diagram technique in order to represent and manage efficiently workflow abstraction within a registry. Advertised abstractions are then matched for workflow interconnections. Title: SIMULATOR FOR REAL-TIME ABSTRACT STATE MACHINES Author(s): Pavel Vasilyev Abstract: We describe a concept and design of a simulator of Real-Time Abstract State Machines. Time can be continuous or discrete. Time constraints are defined by linear inequalities. Two semantics are considered: with and without non-deterministic bounded delays between actions. The simulator is easily configurable. Simulation tasks can be generated according to descriptions in a special language. The simulator will be used for on-the-fly verification of formulas in an expressible timed predicate logic. Several features that facilitate the simulation are described: external functions definition, delays settings, constraints specification, and others. Title: VALIDATION OF VISUAL CONTRACTS FOR SERVICES Author(s): José D. de la Cruz, Lam-Son Lê and Alain Wegmann Abstract: Visual modeling languages have specialized diagrams to represent behavior and concepts. This diagram specialization has drawbacks like the difficulty to represent the effects of actions. We claim that visual contracts can describe actions in a more complete and integrated way. In this paper, we propose a visual contract notation. Its semantics is illustrated by a mapping to Alloy. Thanks to this notation, the modeler can specify, within one diagram, an action and its effects. The modeler can also simulate the contract. These visual con-tracts can be used to specify IT services and check their specifications. As such they contribute to business/IT alignment. Our visual contracts take elements from several UML diagrams and are based on set-theory and on RM-ODP. Title: FORMAL SPECIFICATION OF REAL-TIME SYSTEMS BY TRANSFORMATION OF UML-RT DESIGN MODELS Author(s): Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki, Manuel I. Capel Tuñón, Juan A. Holgado Terriza and Luis E. Mendoza Morales Abstract: We are motivated to complement our methodology by integrating collaboration diagrams to facilitate the specification of capsules in UML-RT design models. An improved systematic transformation method to derive a correct and complete formal system specification of real-time systems is established. This article aims at integrating temporal requirements in the design stage of the life cycle of a real-time system, so that scheduling and dependability analysis can be performed at this stage. The application of CSP+T process algebra to carry out a systematic transformation from a UML-RT model of a well known manufacturing-industry paradigmatic case, the “Production-Cell”, is also presented. Title: A PETRI NET BASED METHODOLOGY FOR BUSINESS PROCESS MODELING AND SIMULATION Author(s): Joseph Barjis and Han Reichgelt Abstract: Research into business processes has recently seen a re-emergence as evidenced by the increasing number of publications and corporate research initiatives. In this paper we introduce a modeling methodology for the study of business processes, including their design, redesign, modeling, simulation and analysis. The methodology, called TOP, is based on the theoretical concept of a transaction which we derive from the Language Action Perspective (LAP). In particular, we regard business processes in an organization as patterns of communication between different actors to represent the underlying actions. TOP is supported by a set of extensions of basic Petri nets notations, resulting in a tool that can be used to build models of business processes and to analyze these models. The result is a more practical methodology. Through a small case study, this paper not only introduces TOP, but demonstrates how the concept of a transaction can be used to capture business processes in an organization. Each transaction captures an atomic process (activity), which is part of a larger business process, and identifies the relevant actors for this process. The paper demonstrates how transactions can be used as building blocks for modeling a set of larger businesses process and then Petri nets can be used to model the identified transactions into a complete model with respect to their time order. Actually, the proposed graphical extension to Petri nets aims to make the resulting models more natural and readable. Title: ANIMATED SIMULATION FOR BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Author(s): Joseph Barjis and Bryan D. MacDonald Abstract: This paper is a research in progress conducted in the framework of an undergraduate research program. In this paper we demonstrate simulation of business processes of a drug store that is planning IT innovations. In this practical project we apply the TOP Methodology previously introduced to the community of this workshop. The methodology is based on a type of Petri nets adapted for business process modeling. The result of our study in this paper is a gradual improvement of business processes of the drug store through series of “what-if” scenarios. We run animated simulation of each “what if” scenario and compare the simulation results for business process improvement. The purpose of using animated simulation was to visualize the dynamic behavior of each scenario and demonstrate it to the business owner. Title: TEST PURPOSE OF DURATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Lotfi Majdoub and Riadh Robbana Abstract: The aim of conformance testing is to check whether an implementation conforms to its specification. We are interested to duration systems, we consider a specification of duration system that is described by a duration graph. Duration graphs are an extension of timed systems and are suitable for modeling the accumulated times spent by computations in the duration systems. In this paper, we propose a framework to generate automatically test cases according to a test purpose for duration graphs. In the first, we define the synchronous product of the specification and the test purpose of an implementation under test. In the second, we demonstrate that timed words recognized by the synchronous product is also recognized by both specification and test purpose. This result allows us to generate tests according to test purpose from the synchronous product. Workshop on Natural Language Understanding and Cognitive Science (NLUCS-2006) Title: ONTOLOGY, TYPES AND SEMANTICS Author(s): Walid S. Saba Abstract: In this paper we argue that many problems in the semantics of natural language are due to a large gap between semantics (which is an attempt at understanding what we say in language about the world) and the way the world is. This seemingly monumental effort can be grossly simplified if one assumes, as Hobbs (1985) correctly observed some time ago, a theory of the world that reflects the way we talk about it. We demonstrate here that assuming such a strongly-typed ontology of commonsense knowledge reduces certain problems to near triviality. Title: AN ALGORITHM FOR ARABIC LEXICON GENERATOR USING MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Author(s): Samer Nofal Abstract: Several natural language processing systems (NLPS) use a lexicon. Lexicon is the file that stores information about words such as: word category, word gender, word number and word tense. Arabic language words are divided into frozen words and derived words. Frozen words have no or little morphological analysis so it must be manually written with full information to NLPS. On the other hand, derived words can be analyzed morphologically. This is possible because in derivation a word we follow predefined schemes, which is called templates. These templates give morphological information about derived words. In addition, the prefix and the suffix of the derived word gives indications about the lexicon information of the word. Consequently, by analyzing the derived words we are free from manually writing any derived word in the lexicon. This work designs, implements and examines an algorithm for morphological analyzer and lexicon generator. The algorithm is based on segmenting the word into prefix, template and suffix. Then the algorithm tries to decide the fillers of the lexicon entries from the information contained in these segments. The segmentation must be correct so this algorithm makes several tests on the compatibility between the word components: prefix, suffix and template. This algorithm consults three lists for assertion purposes: prefixes list, suffixes list and templates list. This algorithm was tested on three social and political articles, these articles contain nearly 1300 words. Evaluation shows that we can depend on computational morphological analysis at least an 80 percent, the 20 percent failure is due to language exceptions and the hidden diacritics of Arabic words. Title: USING SEQUENCE PACKAGE ANALYSIS AS A NEW NATURAL LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING METHOD FOR MINING GOVERNMENT RECORDINGS OF TERROR SUSPECTS Author(s): Amy Neustein Abstract: Three years after 9/11, the Justice Department made the astounding revelation that more than 120,000 hours of potentially valuable terrorism-related recordings had yet to be transcribed. Clearly, the government’s efforts to obtain such recordings have continued. Yet there is no evidence that the contents of the recorded calls have been analyzed any more efficiently. Perhaps analysis by conventional means would be of limited value in any event. After all, terror suspects tend to avoid words that might alarm intelligence agents, thus “outsmarting” conventional mining programs, which heavily rely on word-spotting techniques. One solution is the application of a new natural language understanding method, known as Sequence Package Analysis, which can transcend the limitations of basic parsing methods by mapping out the generic conversational sequence patterns found in the dialog. The purpose of this paper is show how this new method can efficiently mine a large volume of government recordings of the conversations of terror suspects – with the goal of reducing the backlog of unanalyzed calls. Title: A GOOD INDEX, PREREQUISITE FOR EASY ACCESS OF INFORMATION STORED IN A DICTIONARY Author(s): Michael Zock Abstract: A dictionary is a vital component for any natural language processing system, be it a human being or a machine. Yet, what for an outsider seems to be one and the same object, turns out to be something very different viewed by an insider. Hence, the reached conclusions may not only be different, but also irreconcilable, which makes knowledge transfer difficult. The goal of this paper is to present three views, discuss their respective qualities and shortcomings, and offer some suggestions as of how to move on from here. Title: AN N-GRAM BASED DISTRIBUTIONAL TEST FOR AUTHORSHIP IDENTIFICATION Author(s): Kostas Fragos and Christos Skourlas Abstract: In this paper, a novel method for the authorship identification problem is presented. Based on character level text segmentation we study the disputed text’s N-grams distributions within the authors’ text collections. The distribution that behaves most abnormally is identified using the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test and the corresponding Author is selected as the correct one. Our method is evaluated using the test sets of the 2004 ALLC/ACH Ad-hoc Au-thorship Attribution Competition and its performance is comparable with the best performances of the participants in the competition. The main advantage of our method is that it is a simple, not parametric way for authorship attribu-tion without the necessity of building authors’ profiles from training data. Moreover, the method is language independent and does not require segmenta-tion for languages such as Chinese or Thai. There is also no need for any text pre-processing or higher level processing, avoiding thus the use of taggers, parsers, feature selection strategies, or the use of other language dependent NLP tools. Title: QUESTION ANSWERING USING SYNTAX-BASED Author(s): Demetrios G. Glinos and Fernando Gomez Abstract: This paper presents a syntax-based formalism for representing atomic propositions extracted from textual documents. We describe a method for constructing a hierarchy of concept nodes for indexing such logical forms based on the discourse entities they contain. We show how meaningful factoid and list questions can be decomposed into boolean expressions of question patterns using the same formalism, with free variables representing the desired answers. We also show how this formalism can be used for robust question answering using the concept hierarchy and WordNet synonym, hypernym, and antonym relationships. Finally, we describe the encouraging performance of an implementation of this formalism for the factoid questions from TREC 2005, which operated upon the AQUAINT document corpus. Title: REQUIREMENTS-DRIVEN AUTOMATIC CONFIGURATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE APPLICATIONS Author(s): Dan Cristea, Corina Forăscu and Ionuţ Pistol Abstract: The paper proposes a model for dynamical building of architectures intended to process natural language. The representation that stays at the base of the model is a hierarchy of XML annotation schemas in which the parent-child links are defined by subsumption relations. We show how the hierarchy may be augmented with processing power by marking the edges with names of processors, each realising an elementary NL processing step, able to transform the annotation corresponding to the parent node onto that corresponding to the child node. The paper describes a navigation algorithm in the hierarchy, which computes paths linking a start node to a destination node, and which automatically configures architectures of serial and parallel combinations of processors. Title: BUILDING DOMAIN ONTOLOGIES FROM TEXT ANALYSIS: AN APPLICATION FOR QUESTION ANSWERING Author(s): Rodolfo Delmonte Abstract: In the field of information extraction and automatic question answering access to a domain ontology may be of great help. But the main problem is building such an ontology, a difficult and time consuming task. We propose an approach in which the domain ontology is learned from the linguistic analysis of a number of texts which represent the domain itself. We have used the GETARUNS system do make NLP analysis of texts. GETARUNS can build a Discourse Model and is able to assign a relevance score to each entity. The Discourse Model is then used to extract best candidates to become concepts in the domain ontology. To arrange concepts in the correct hierarchy we use WordNet taxonomy. Once the domain ontology is built we reconsider the texts to extract information. In this phase the entities recognized at discourse level are use to create instances of the concepts. The predicate-argument structure of the verb is used to construct instance slots for concepts. Eventually, the question answering task is performed by translating the natural language question in a suitable form and use that to query the Discourse Model enriched by the ontology. Title: A DIVERGENCE FROM RANDOMNESS FRAMEWORK OF WORDNET SYNSETS’ DISTRIBUTION FOR WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION Author(s): Kostas Fragos and Christos Skourlas Abstract: We describe and experimentally evaluate a method for word sense disambiguation based on measuring the divergence from randomness of Word-Net synsets distribution in the context of a word that is to be disambiguated (target word). Firstly, for each word appearing in the context we collect its re-lated synsets from WordNet using WordNet relations, creating thus the bug of the related synsets for the context. Secondly, for each one of the senses of the target word we study the distribution of its related synsets in the context bug. Assigning a theoretical random process for those distributions and measuring the divergence from that random process we conclude for the correct sense of the target word. The method is evaluated on English lexical sample data from the Senseval-2 word sense disambiguation competition, exhibiting remarkable performance; outperforming most known WordNet relations based measures for word sense disambiguation. Moreover, the method is general and can per-form disambiguation assigning any random process for the distribution of the related synsets and use any measure to quantify the divergence from random-ness. Title: INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM MEDICAL REPORTS Author(s): Liliana Ferreira, António Teixeira and João Paulo da Silva Cunha Abstract: Information extraction technology, as defined and developed through the U.S. DARPA Message Understanding Conferences (MUCs), has proved successful at extracting information primarily from newswire texts and in domains concerned with human activity. This paper presents an Information Extraction (IE) system, intended to extract structured information from medical reports written in Portuguese. A first evaluation is performed and the results are discussed. Title: CLUSTERING BY TREE DISTANCE FOR PARSE TREE NORMALISATION Author(s): Martin Emms Abstract: The application of tree distance to clustering is considered. Factors that have been found to favourably effect the use of tree distance in question answering are found also to favourably effect cluster quality. A potential application is to systems to transform interrogative to indicative sentences, and it is argued that clustering provides a means to navigate the space of parses assigned to a large question set. A tree-distance analogue of the vector space notion of centroid is proposed which derives from a cluster a kind of pattern tree summarising the cluster. Title: A COGNITIVE-BASED APPROACH TO LEARNING INTEGRATED LANGUAGE COMPONENTS Author(s): Charles Hannon and Jonathan Clark Abstract: The learning component of a cognitive-based language model (LEAP) designed to easily integrate into agent systems is presented. Building on the Interlaced Micro-Patterns (IMP) theory and the Alchemy/Goal Mind environment, the LEAP research improves agent-to-human and agent-to-agent communication by incorporating aspects of human language development within the framework of general cognition. Using a corpus of child through youth fiction, we provide evidence that micro-patterns can be used to simultaneously learn a lexicon, syntax, thematic roles and concepts. Title: AN APPROACH TO QUERY-BASED ADAPTATION OF SEMI-STRUCTURED DOCUMENTS Author(s): Corinne Amel Zayani and and Florence Sèdes Abstract: Generally, when semi-structured documents are queried by user, the results are relevant but not always adapted. Indeed, the research works in the area of semi-structured documents always try to improve the relevance of results delivered by user’s query. On the other hand, the research works in the area of adaptation don't take into account how querying semi-structured documents. So, in this paper we propose an approach to adapt the query results according to the user model that is initialized and updated by user’s queries. This adaptation approach is made up of two steps: (i) upstream of the querying step, enriching user's query from the user’s profile (ii) downstream of the querying step, adapting document units according to user’s characteristics (interest, preference, etc). These two steps are included in our proposal of an architecture for Adaptive Hypermedia Systems extended from a previous one in [Zayani and al., 05]. Title: CHATTERBOX CHALLENGE 2005: GEOGRAPHY OF THE MODERN ELIZA Author(s): Huma Shah Abstract: The geography of a modern Eliza provides an illusion of natural language understanding, as can be seen in the best of the hundred-plus programmes entered into Chatterbox Challenge 2005 (CBC 2005), an alternative to Loebner’s Contest for artificial intelligence, Turing’s measure for intelligence through textual dialogue. These artificial conversational entities (ACE) are able to maintain lengthy textual dialogues. This paper presents the experience of the author as one of the Judges in CBC 2005. Not ‘bathed in language experience’ like their human counterparts, Eliza’s descendants respond at times humorously and with knowledge but they lack metaphor use, the very feature of everyday human discourse. However ACE find success as virtual e-assistants in single topic domains. Swedish furniture company IKEA’s animated avatar Anna, a virtual customer service agent engages in twenty thousand conversations daily across eight country sites in six languages, including English. It provides IKEA’s customers with an alternative and more natural query system than key-word search to find products and prices. The author’s findings show that modern Eliza’s appear to have come a long way from their ancestor but understanding remains in the head of the human user. Until metaphor design is included ACE will remain machine-like as Weizenbaum’s original. Title: ON LEXICAL COHESIVE BEHAVIOR OF HEADS OF DEFINITE DESCRIPTIONS: A CASE STUDY Author(s): Beata Beigman Klebanov and Eli Shamir Abstract: This paper uses materials from annotation studies of lexical cohesion (Beigman Klebanov and Shamir, 2005) and of definite reference (Poesio and Vieira, 1998; Vieira, 1998) to discuss the complementary nature of the two processes. Juxtaposing the two kinds of annotation provides a unique perspective for observing the workings of the reader's common-sense knowledge at two levels of text organization: in patterns of lexis and in realization of discourse entities. Title: UNDERSTANDING LONG SENTENCES Author(s): Svetlana Sheremetyeva Abstract: This paper describes a natural language understanding component for parsing long sentences. The NLU component includes a generation module so that the results of understanding can be displayed to the user in a natural language and interactively corrected before the final parse is sent to a subsequent module of a particular application. Parsing proper is divided into a phrase level and a level of individual clauses included in a sentence. The output of the parser is an interlingual representation that captures the content of a whole sentence. The load of detecting the sentence clause hierarchy level is shifted to the generator. The methodology is universal in the sense that it could be used for different domains, languages and applications. We illustrate it on the example of parsing a patent claim, - an extreme case of a long sentence. Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing (IWUC-2006) Title: NOMADIC SHARING OF MEDIA: PROXIMITY DELIVERY OF MASS CONTENT WITHIN P2P SOCIAL NETWORKS Author(s): Balázs Bakos and Lóránt Farkas Abstract: P2P file sharing systems are primarily designed for personal computers with broadband connections to the Internet. Despite the fact that mobile phones are increasingly starting to resemble computers, they are still different in many ways. In our paper we introduce a novel P2P file sharing system optimized for mobile phones. We discuss issues that we have found to be important when proximity technology and mobile phone specific context data is used to deliver mass content within P2P social networks. Such issues are social group management, enhanced peer discovery and efficient multicasting ensuring reliable end-to-end delivery over multi-hops and social interactions. The experiment with the proof-of-concept implementation on Series S60 Symbian platform shows that content sharing in social proximity can happen in a cost and resource effective way and it leads to new social interactions and mobile communities. Title: DISCOVERING RELEVANT SERVICES IN PERVASIVE ENVIRONMENTS USING SEMANTICS AND CONTEXT Author(s): Luke Steller, Shonali Krishnaswamy and Jan Newmarch Abstract: Recent advances, have enabled provision and consumption of mobile services by small handheld devices. These devices have limited capability in terms of processing ability, storage space, battery life, network connectivity and bandwidth, which presents new challenges for service discovery architectures. As a result, there is an increased imperative to provide service requestors with services which are the most relevant to their needs, to mitigate wastage of precious device capacity and bandwidth. Service semantics must be captured to match services with requests, on meaning not syntax. Furthermore, requestor and service context must be utilized during the discovery process. Thus, there is a need for a service discovery model that brings together ‘semantics’ and ‘context’. We present a case for bringing together semantics and context for pervasive service discovery by illustrating improved levels of precision and recall, or in other words increased relevance. We also present our model for integrating semantics and context for pervasive service discovery. Title: IMPLEMENTING A PERVASIVE MEETING ROOM: A MODEL DRIVEN APPROACH Author(s): Javier Muñoz, Vicente Pelechano and Carlos Cetina Abstract: Current pervasive systems are developed ad-hoc or using implementation frameworks. These approaches could be not enough when dealing with large and complex pervasive systems. This paper introduces an implementation of a pervasive system for managing a meetings room. This system has been developed using a model driven method proposed by the authors. The system is specified using PervML, a UML-like modeling language. Then, a set of templates are applied to the specification in order to automatically produce Java code that uses an OSGi-based framework. The final application integrates several technologies like EIB and Web Services. Three different user interfaces are provided for interacting with the system. Title: POSITION ESTIMATION ON A GRID, BASED ON INFRARED PATTERN RECEPTION FEATURES Author(s): Nikos Petrellis, Nikos Konofaos and George Alexiou Abstract: The estimation of the position of a moving target on a grid plane is studied in this paper. The estimation method is based on the success rate the infrared patterns transmitted from two constant positions, is received by the moving target. Several aspects of the pattern reception, such as the success rate of the expected ones or the scrambled, play an important role in determining the target coordinates. Our system requires ultra low cost commercial components. Since the position of the target is determined by the success rate instead of an analog signal intensity, no high precision sensors and measurements are required and the whole coordinate estimation can be carried out by a simple microcontroller on the moving target. The speed of the estimation is adjustable according to the desired accuracy. An error of less than 5% could be reached in most of the covered area. The presented system can be used in a number of automation, robotics and virtual reality applications where position estimation in an indoor area of several meters should be performed in regular intervals. Title: VISUALISATION OF FUZZY CLASSIFICATION OF DATA ELEMENTS IN UBIQUITOUS DATA STREAM MINING Author(s): Brett Gillick, Shonali Krishnaswamy, Mohamed Medhat Gaber and Arkady Zaslavsky Abstract: Ubiquitous data mining (UDM) allows data mining operations to be performed on continuous data streams using resource limited devices. Visualisation is an essential tool to assist users in understanding and interpreting data mining results and to aide the user in directing further mining operations. However, there are currently no on-line real-time visualisation tools to complement the UDM algorithms. In this paper we investigate the use of visualisation techniques, within an on-line real-time visualisation framework, in order to enhance UDM result interpretation on handheld devices. We demonstrate a proof of concept implementation for visualising degree of membership of data elements to clusters produced using fuzzy logic algorithms. Title: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS AND SAFEGUARDING OF PRIVACY THREATS IN UBICOMP APPLICATIONS Author(s): Elena Vildjiounaite, Petteri Alahuhta, Pasi Ahonen, David Wright and Michael Friedewald Abstract: Realization of Ubiquitous Computing vision in real world creates high threats to personal privacy due to constant information collection by numerous tiny sensors, active information exchange over short and long distances, long-term storage of large quantities of data and reasoning on collected and stored data. However, analysis based on over 100 Ubicomp scenarios shows that also nowadays applications are often developed without considering privacy problems. This work suggests guidelines for estimation of threats to privacy, depending on real world application settings and on choice of technology; and guidelines for developing technological safeguards against privacy threats. Title: M-TRAFFIC - A TRAFFIC INFORMATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MOBILE DEVICES Author(s): Teresa Romão, Luís Rato, Pedro Fernandes, Nuno Alexandre, Antão Almada and Nuno Capeta Abstract: Traffic information is crucial in metropolitan areas, where a high concentration of moving vehicles causes traffic congestion and blockage. Appropriate traffic information received at the proper time helps users to avoid unnecessary delays, choosing the fastest route that serves their purposes. This paper presents Mobile Traffic (M-Traffic), a multiplatform online traffic information system, which provides real time traffic information based on image processing, sensor's data and traveller behaviour models. In order to estimate route delay and feed the optimal routing algorithm a traffic microscopic simulation model is developed and simulation results are presented. This mobile information service ubiquitously provides users with traffic information regarding their needs and preferences, according to an alert system, which allows a personalised pre-definition of warning messages. Title: ON-DEMAND LOADING OF PERVASIVE-ORIENTED APPLICATIONS USING MASS-MARKET CAMERA PHONES Author(s): Marco Avvenuti and Alessio Vecchio Abstract: Camera phones are the first realistic platform for the development of pervasive computing applications: they are personal, ubiquitous, and the built-in camera can be used as a context-sensing equipment. Unfortunately, currently available systems for pervasive computing, emerged from both academic and industrial research, can be adopted only on a small fraction of the devices already deployed or in production in the next future. In this paper we present an extensible programming infrastructure that turns mass-marke phones into a platform for pervasive computing. Title: A DESIGN THEORY FOR PERVASIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Panos E. Kourouthanassis and George M. Giaglis Abstract: Pervasive Information Systems (PIS) constitute an emerging class of Information Systems where Information Technology is gradually embedded in the physical environment, capable of accommodating user needs and wants when desired. PIS differ from Desktop Information Systems (DIS) in that they encompass a complex, dynamic environment composed of multiple artefacts instead of Personal Computers only, capable of perceiving contextual information instead of simple user input, and supporting mobility instead of stationary services. This paper aims at proposing a design theory for PIS. In particular, we have employed (Walls et al. 1992)’s framework of Information Systems Design Theories (ISDT) to develop a set of prescriptions that guide the design of PIS instances. The design theory addresses both the design product and the design process by specifying four meta-requirements, nine meta-design considerations, and five design method considerations. The paper emphasises mainly on the design theory itself and does not address issues concerning its validation. However, in the concluding remarks we briefly discuss the activities we undertook to validate our theoretical suggestions. Title: AN APPROACH FOR APPLICATIONS SUITABILITY ON PERVASIVE ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Andres Flores and Macario Polo Abstract: This work is related to the area of Component-based Software Development, particularly to largely distributed systems as Pervasive Computing Environments. We are focused on the automation of a Component Integration Process as a support for run-time adjustments of applications when the environment involves highly dynamic changes of requirements. Such integration implies to evaluate whether components may or may not satisfy a given model. The Assessment procedure is based on syntactic and semantic aspects, where the latter involves assertions, and usage protocols. We have implemented on the .Net technology the current state of our approach to gain understanding about the complexity and effectiveness of our approach. Workshop on Security In Information Systems (WOSIS-2006) Title: GRID AUTHORIZATION BASED ON EXISTING AAA ARCHITECTURES Author(s): Manuel Sánchez, Gabriel López, Óscar Cánovas and Antonio F. Gómez-Skarmeta Abstract: Grid computing has appeared as a new paradigm to cover the needs of modern scientific applications. A lot of research has been done in this field, but several issues are still open. One of them, the Grid authorization, is probably one of the most important topics regarding to resource providers, because they need to control the users accessing their resources. Several authorization architectures have been proposed, including in some cases new elements which introduce redundant components to the system. In this paper, we propose a new scheme which takes advantage of a previously existing underlying authorization infrastructure among the involved organizations, the NAS-SAML system, to build a Grid environment with an advanced and extensible authorization mechanism. Title: A SECURE UNIVERSAL LOYALTY CARD Author(s): Sébastien Canard, Fabrice Clerc and Benjamin Morin Abstract: In this paper, we propose a generic loyalty system based on smart cards which may be implemented in existing devices like cell phones or PDAs. Our loyalty system is secure and offers some desirable features both to customers and vendors, and may further the adoption of such win-win marketing operations. In particular, the system is universal in the sense that there is a one-to-many relationship between a customer's loyalty card and the vendors and the system is reliable for both parties. Title: A DISTRIBUTED KERBERIZED ACCESS ARCHITECTURE FOR REAL TIME GRIDS Author(s): A. Moralis, A. Lenis, M. Grammatikou, S. Papavassiliou and B. Maglaris Abstract: Authentication, authorization and encryption in large scale distributed Grids are usually based on a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) with asymmetric encryption and X.509 – Proxy certificates for user single sign-on to resources. This approach, however, introduces processing overhead, that may be undesirable in near real time Grid applications (e.g. Grids used for time critical instrument monitoring and control). To alleviate this we introduce in this paper a Symmetric Key – Kerberos based approach that scales in large Grid environments. We present a Use Case Scenario to test and validate the proposed Architecture, in case of numerous time-critical requests running in parallel. Title: A MODEL DRIVEN APPROACH FOR SECURE XML DATABASE DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Belén Vela, Eduardo Fernández-Medina, Esperanza Marcos and Mario Piattini Abstract: In this paper, we propose a methodological approach for the model driven development of secure XML Databases (DB). This proposal is under the framework of MIDAS, a model driven methodology for the development of Web Information Systems (WIS) based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The XML DB development process in MIDAS proposes to use as Platform Independent Model (PIM) the data conceptual model and as Platform Specific Model (PSM) the XML Schema model, both of them represented in UML. In this work, such models will be modified to be able to add security aspects if the stored information is considered as critical. On the one hand, it is proposed the use of a UML extension to incorporate security aspects at the conceptual secure DB development (PIM) level and on the other hand, the previously-defined XML schema profile will be modified with the purpose of incorporating security aspects in the logical secure XML DB development (PSM) level. In addition, the semi-automatic mappings to pass from PIM to PSM for secure XML DB will be defined. The development process of a secure XML DB will be shown through a case study: a WIS for the management of hospital information in an XML DB. Title: SECTET – AN EXTENSIBLE FRAMEWORK FOR THE REALIZATION OF SECURE INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL WORKFLOWS Author(s): Michael Hafner, Ruth Breu, Berthold Agreiter and Andrea Nowak Abstract: SECTET is an extensible framework for the model-driven realization of security-critical, inter-organizational workflows. The framework is based on a methodology that focuses on the correct implementation of security-requirements and consists of a suite of tools that facilitates the cost-efficient realization and management of decentralized, security-critical workflows. After giving a description of the framework, we show how it can be adapted to incorporate advanced security patterns like the Qualified Signature, which implements a legal requirement specific to e-government. It extends the concept of digital signature by requiring that the signatory be a natural person. Title: ROBUST-AUDIO-HASH SYNCHRONIZED AUDIO WATERMARKING Author(s): Martin Steinebach, Sascha Zmdzinski and Sergey Neichtadt Abstract: Digital audio watermarking has become an accepted technology for e.g. protection of music downloads. While common challenges to robustness, like lossy compression or analogue transmission have been solved in the past, loss of synchronization due to time stretching is still an issue. We present a novel approach to audio watermarking synchronization where a robust audio hash is applied to identify watermarking positions. Title: SECURING MOBILE HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS BASED ON INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION: DITIS CASE STUDY Author(s): Eliana Stavrou and Andreas Pitsillides Abstract: Healthcare applications require special attention regarding security issues since healthcare is associated with mission critical services that are connected with the well being of life. Security raises special considerations when mobility is introduced in the healthcare environment. This research work proposes a security framework for mobile healthcare systems based on information classification into security levels. By categorizing the information used in mobile healthcare systems and linking it with the security objectives and security technologies, we aim in balancing the trade-off between security complexity and performance. Furthermore, this paper discusses a number of issues that are raised in the healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, integrity, legal and ethical considerations. Title: INFORMATION SECURITY AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY IN SMES Author(s): Antti Tuomisto and Mikko Savela Abstract: How SMEs could allocate their scarce resources into information and business security issues in a manner which keeps prevention and recovery activities in a balance from the business continuity perspective? This study investigates the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in the evolving businesses of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The use of IT in SMEs is generally reported mainly in technical terms. However, the multifaceted development of global information society pushes more pressure to all lines of business, whether knowledge work intensive and high education dependent or not. Our framework is independent from the business branch, and we attempt to reach all types and sizes of SMEs and even entrepreneurs, in order to be able to describe the many characteristics of the current information security situation. The empirical research in this study constructs upon the fact that the key unit of analysis is the business branch knowledge and the persons possessing that knowledge. The role of ICT is more or less normalized to a few areas of core business data. The trends of globalization and digitalization of the networked and mobile information society are under way. But the question is what is the everyday business and everyday work meanwhile. Our framework has three levels: i) current business situation from the traditional information security perspective, ii) tensions of business continuity and upcoming technological visions of the near future, and iii) the knowledge of the workers. This article emphasises the first two levels, but the third level justifies the concepts. Information intensive work in SMEs is yet to come, but still we must ensure that the awareness of existing systems’ importance to the business continuity is clarified. Securing the resources for practical and effective information and appropriate concretization this to the relevant work roles and persons is one of the key findings. Further, based on the results of the empirical study, we found that the scarce resources should be used for actions which are in line with the technological infrastructure and the business itself (information and knowledge requirements of the actors). These findings suggest that SMEs comprehension of current and forthcoming challenges in business security are only partly ICT related, although at the same time the very continuity of business (and efficient performance and high customer satisfaction) involves more and more ICT. The research results of the current and near future state of affairs were used to construct a collection of guidelines for a practical and inexpensive information security policy in SMEs. However, the competition in business is heavy and increasingly international, and thus there is no room for giving any advance to competitors. Title: THE PLACE AND ROLE OF SECURITY PATTERNS IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Author(s): Oleksiy Mazhelis and Anton Naumenko Abstract: Security is one of the key quality attributes for many contemporary software products. Designing, developing, and maintaining such software necessitates the use of a secure-software development process which specifies how achieving this quality goal can be supported throughout the development lifecycle. In addition to satisfying the explicitly-stated functional security requirements, such process is aimed at minimising the number of vulnerabilities in the design and the implementation of the software. The secure software development is a challenging task spanning various stages of the development process. This inherent difficulty may be to some extent alleviated by the use of the so-called security patterns, which encapsulate the knowledge about successful solutions to recurring security problems. In this paper, the state of the art in the secure software development processes is overviewed, and the role and place of security patterns in these processes is described. The current usage of patterns in secure software development is analysed, taking into account both the role of these patterns in the development processes, and the limitations of the security patterns available. Title: THE SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE OF A JAVA CARD BASED SECURITY PLATFORM FOR DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS Author(s): Serge Chaumette, Achraf Karray and Damien Sauveron Abstract: The work presented in this paper is part of the Java Card Grid project carried out at LaBRI, Laboratoire Bordelais de Recherche en Informatique. The aim of this project is to build a hardware platform and the associated software components to experiment on the security features of distributed applications. To achieve this goal we use the hardware components that offer the highest security level: smart cards. We do not pretend that the resulting platform can compare to a real grid in terms of computational power, but it serves as a proof of concept for what a grid with secure processors could be and could do. As of writing, the hardware platform comprises 32 card readers and two PCs to manage them. The applications that we run on our platform are applications that require a high level of confidentiality regarding their own binary code, the input data that they handle, and the results that they produce. Even though we know that we cannot expect our grid to achieve high speed computation, we believe that it is a good testbed to experiment on the security features that one would require in a real grid environment. This paper focuses on the software infrastructure that we have set up to manage the platform and on the framework that we have designed and implemented to develop real applications on it. Title: A NEW METHOD FOR EMBEDDING SECRET DATA TO THE CONTAINER IMAGE USING ‘CHAOTIC’ DISCRETE ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMS Author(s): Vladimir Chernov and Oleg Bespolitov Abstract: In this paper a method for embedding the secret image into the container is considered. The method is based on specifics of the spectral properties of specific two-dimensional discrete orthogonal transform. The values of functions forming the basis of this transforms are chaotically’ distributed. Two ideas ground the synthesis of these basises. Firstly, on 1D M-transforms, that were introduced and investigated in certain particular cases by H.-J. Grallert. Secondly, on application of introduced by I. Kàtai canonical number systems in finite fields to numerating the input image pixels. Title: MODELING DECEPTIVE ACTION IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES Author(s): Yi Hu and Brajendra Panda Abstract: Trust and shared interest are the building blocks for most relationships in human society. A deceptive action and the associated risks can affect many people. Although trust relationship in virtual communities can be built up more quickly and easily, it is more fragile. This research concentrates on analyzing the Information Quality in the open rating systems; especially studying the way deceptive data spread in virtual communities. In this paper, we have proposed several novel ideas on assessing deceptive actions and how the structure of the virtual community affects the information flow among subjects in the web of trust. Furthermore, our experiments illustrate how deceptive data would spread and to what extent the deceptive data would affect subjects in virtual communities. Title: SREP: A PROPOSAL FOR ESTABLISHING SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Daniel Mellado, Eduardo Fernández-Medina2 and Mario Piattini Abstract: Nowadays, security solutions are mainly focused on providing security defences, instead of solving one of the main reasons for security problems that refers to an appropriate Information Systems (IS) design. In this paper a proposal for establishing security requirements for the development of secure IS is presented. Our approach is an asset-based and risk-driven method, which is based on the reuse of security requirements, by providing a security resources repository, together with the integration of the Common Criteria into traditional software lifecycle model, so that it conforms to ISO/IEC 15408. Starting from the concept of iterative software construction, we will propose a micro-process for the security requirements analysis, that is repeatedly performed at each level of abstraction throughout the incremental development. In brief, we will present an approach which deals with the security requirements at the first stages of software development in a systematic and intuitive way, and which conforms to ISO/IEC 17799:2005 Title: HONEYNETS IN 3G – A GAME THEORETIC ANALYSIS Author(s): Christos K. Dimitriadis Abstract: Although security improvements were implemented in the air interface of Third Generation (3G) mobile systems, important security vulnerabilities remain in the mobile core network, threatening the whole service provision path. This paper presents an overview of the results of a security assessment on the Packet Switched domain of a mobile operator’s core network and proves the benefits from implementing a Honeynet in 3G infrastructures, by the deployment of game theory. Title: PROTECTING NOTIFICATION OF EVENTS IN MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS Author(s): Eva Rodríguez, Silvia Llorente and Jaime Delgado Abstract: Protection of multimedia information is an important issue for current actors in the multimedia distribution value chain. Security techniques exist for protecting the multimedia contents itself, like encryption, watermarking, fingerprinting and so on. Nevertheless, at a higher level, other mechanisms could be used for the protection and management of multimedia information. One of these mechanisms is the notification of events of actions, done by the different actors of the multimedia value chain (from content creator to final user), for the different delivery channels. It is possible to describe event notifications by standard means by using MPEG 21 event reporting. However, the current standard initiative does not take into account the security of the events being notified. In this paper we present a possible solution to this problem by combining two different parts of the MPEG 21 standard, Event Reporting (ER) and Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP). Title: SECURITY PATTERNS RELATED TO SECURITY REQUIREMENTS Author(s): David G. Rosado, Carlos Gutiérrez, Eduardo Fernández-Medina and Mario Piattini Abstract: In the information technology environment, patterns give information system architects a method for defining reusable solutions to design problems. The purpose of using patterns is to create a reusable design element. We can obtain, in a systematic way, a security software architecture that contains a set of security design patterns from the security requirements found. Several important aspects of building software systems with patterns are not addressed yet by today’s pattern descriptions. Examples include the integration of a pattern into a partially existing design, and the combination of patterns into larger designs. Now, we want to use these patterns in our architectures, designs, and implementations. Title: TOWARDS A UML 2.0 PROFILE FOR RBAC MODELING IN ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS Author(s): Alfonso Rodríguez, Eduardo Fernández-Medina and Mario Piattini Abstract: Business Processes are a crucial issue for many companies because they are the key to maintain competitiveness. Moreover, business processes are important for software developers, since they can capture from them the necessary requirements for software design and creation. Besides, business process modeling is the center for conducting and improving how the business is operated. Security is important for business performance, but traditionally, it is considered after the business processes definition. Empirical studies show that, at the business process level, customers, end users, and business analysts are able to express their security needs. In this work, we will present a proposal aimed at integrating security requirements and role identification for RBAC, through business process modeling. We will summarize our UML 2.0 profile for modeling secure business process through activity diagrams, and we will apply this approach to a typical health-care business process. Title: NAMES IN CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROTOCOLS Author(s): Simone Lupetti, Feike W. Dillema and Tage Stabell-Kulø Abstract: Messages in cryptographic protocols are made up of a small set of elements; keys, nonces, timestamps, and names, amongst others. These elements must possess specific properties to be useful for theirintended purpose. Some of these properties are prescribed as part of the protocol specification, while others are assumed to be inherited from the execution environment. We focus on this latter category by analyzing the security properties of names. We argue that to fulfill their role in cryptographic protocols, names must be unique across parallel sessions of the same protocol and that uniqueness must be guaranteed to hold for each participant of these runs. We discuss how uniqueness can be provided and verified by the interested parties. To do so, two different mechanisms are shown possible, namely local and global verification. In both cases we discuss the implications of uniqueness on the execution environment of a cryptographic protocol, pointing out the inescapable issues related to each of the two mechanisms. Finally, we argue that such implications should be given careful consideration as they represent important elements in the evaluation of a cryptographic protocol itself. Title: SECURE DEPLOYMENT OF APPLICATIONS TO FIELDED DEVICES AND SMART CARDS Author(s): William G. Sirett, John A. MacDonald, Keith Mayes and Konstantinos Markantonakis Abstract: This work presents a process of securely deploying applications to fielded devices and smart cards whilst taking into consideration the possibility that the fielded device could be malicious. Advantages of the proposed process are caching functionality upon the device, optimal use of resources, employment of nested security contexts whilst addressing fielded infrastructures using a homogenous solution. This work outlines a targeted scenario, details existing malicious device activity and defines an attacker profile. Assumptions and requirements are drawn and analysis of the proposal and attack scenarios is conducted. Advantages and deployment scenarios are presented with an implementation the process using Java and existing standards. Title: IMPROVING INTRUSION DETECTION THROUGH ALERT VERIFICATION Author(s): Thomas Heyman, Bart De Win, Christophe Huygens and Wouter Joosen Abstract: Intrusion detection systems (IDS) suffer from a lack of scalability. Alert correlation has been introduced to address this challenge and is generally considered to be the major part of the solution. One of the steps in the correlation process is the verification of alerts. We present a generic intrusion detection architecture. We have identified the relationships and interactions between correlation and verification. An overview of verification tests proposed in literature is presented and refined. Our contribution is to integrate these tests in a generic framework for verification. A proof-of-concept implementation is presented and a first evaluation is made. We conclude that verification is a viable extension to the intrusion detection process. Its effectiveness is highly dependent on contextual information. Title: AN AUDIT METHOD OF PERSONAL DATA BASED ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING Author(s): Miguel A. Martínez, Joaquín Lasheras, Ambrosio Toval and Mario Piattini Abstract: Security analysis of computer systems studies the vulnerabilities that affect an organization from various points of view. In recent years, a growing interest in guaranteeing that the organization makes a suitable use of personal data has been identified. Furthermore, the privacy of personal data is regulated by the Law and is considered important in a number of Quality Standards. This paper presents a practical proposal to make a systematic audit of personal data protection - within the framework of CobiT audit - based on SIREN. SIREN is a method of Requirements Engineering based on standards of this discipline and requirements reuse. The requirements predefined in the SIREN catalog of Personal Data Protection (PDP), along with a method of data protection audit, based on the use of this catalog, can provide organizations with a guarantee of ensuring the privacy and the good use of personal data. The audit method proposed in this paper has been validated following the Action Research method, in a case study of a medical center, which has a high level of protection in the personal data that it handles. Title: AN ONTOLOGY-BASED DISTRIBUTED WHITEBOARD TO DETERMINE LEGAL RESPONSES TO ONLINE CYBER ATTACKS Author(s): Leisheng Peng, Duminda Wijesekera, Thomas C. Wingfield and James B. Michael Abstract: Today’s cyber attacks come from many Internet and legal domains, requiring a coordinated swift and legitimate response. Consequently, determining the legality of a response requires a coordinated consensual legal argument that weaves legal sub-arguments from all participating domains. Doing so as a precursor for forensic analysis is to provide legitimacy to the process. We describe a tool that can be used to weave such a legal argument using the WWW securely. Our tool is a legal whiteboard that allows participating group of attorneys to meet in Cyberspace in real time and construct a legal argument graphically by using a decision tree. A tree constructed this way and verified to hold anticipated legal challenges can then be used to guide forensic experts and law enforcement personnel during their active responses and off-line examinations. In our tool the group of attorneys that construct the legal argument elects a leader (say the super builder) that permits (through access control) the group to construct a decision tree that, when populated by actual parameters of a cyber incident will output a decision. During the course of the construction, all participating attorneys can construct sub-parts of the arguments that can be substantiated with relevant legal documents from their own legal domains. Because diverse legal domains use different nomenclatures, we provide the capability to index and search legal documents using a complex International legal Ontology that goes beyond the traditional NeuxsLexus like legal databases. This Ontology itself can be created using the tool from remote locations. Once the sub arguments are made, they are submitted to the master builder through a ticketing mechanism that has the final authority to approve and synchronize the sub-trees to become the final decision tree with all its attached legal documents. Our tool has been fine tuned with numerous interviews with practicing attorneys in the subject area of cyber crime. Title: AN ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM SUPPORTING VOTEWEIGHTS Author(s): Charlott Eliasson and André Zúquete Abstract: Typically each voter contributes with one vote for an election. But there are some elections where voters can have different weights associated with their vote. In this paper we provide a solution for allowing an arbitrary number of weights and weight values to be used in an electronic voting system. We chose REVS, Robust Electronic Voting System, a voting system designed to support Internet voting processes, as the start point for studying the introduction of vote weights. To the best of our knowledge, our modified version of REVS is the first electronic voting system supporting vote weights. Another novelty of the work presented in this paper is the use of sets of RSA key pairs with a common modulus per entity, for saving both generation time and space. Title: DEVELOPING A MATURITY MODEL FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY MANAGEMENT WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES Author(s): Luis Enrique Sánchez, Daniel Villafranca, Eduardo Fernández-Medina and Mario Piattini Abstract: For enterprises to be able to use information and communication technologies with guarantees, it is necessary to have an adequate security management available. This requires that enterprises always know their current maturity level and to what extend their security must evolve. Current maturity models are showing us that they are inefficient in small and medium size enterprises since these enterprises have a series of additional problems when implementing security management systems. In this paper, we will make an analysis of the maturity models oriented to security existing in the market by analysing their main disadvantages regarding small and medium size enterprises using as a reference framework ISO/IEC 17799. This approach is being directly applied to real cases, thus obtaining a constant improvement in its application. Title: ANALYZING PREAUTHENTICATION TIMESTAMPS TO CRACK KERBEROS V PASSWORDS Author(s): Ahmed Alazzawe, Anis Alazzawe, Asad Nawaz and Duminda Wijesekera Abstract: Kerberos V is widely deployed to provide authentication service, which is included in the popular Microsoft Windows 2000/2003 Servers. Kerberos V introduced several improvements over its previous version. One of these improvements is a pre-authentication scheme that makes an offline password attack more difficult. When pre-authentication is used with a pass phrase though, it too becomes susceptible to a similar type of offline attack. By capturing and using the timestamp information, from the pre-authentication data, we can decrease the time needed to obtain the password. This paper examines the computations saved by using this knowledge of the timestamp in attacking Kerberos 5 pre-authentication data to obtain the password. We wrote a program, Kerb_Cruncher, which breaks apart the pre-authentication data in an attempt to recover the client’s password. It uses a well- known cryptographic library and operates in two modes to perform the decryption of the data. One mode performs the attack, without using the timestamp. The other mode would skip the last HMAC computation which is used in the verification process, and instead looks for a timestamp to determine that the decryption process succeeded. Our findings show that by performing the timestamp check rather than the final HMAC computation we save a noticeable amount of time, as well as processing cycles. Workshop on Computer Supported Activity Coordination (CSAC-2006) Title: ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE SYSTEM FOR SAFETY CASE MANAGEMENT Author(s): Alan Eardley, Oleksy Shelest and Saeed Fararooy Abstract: In this paper the theory of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is applied to the safety case management domain on order to evaluate its benefits and to assess the potential issues which relate to data exchange within certain industry sectors. The work is undertaken to establish best practice and to examine successful techniques identified by other researchers in the area of XML/EDI and to implement them in data transmission from a safety case management tool based on MS Visio to the Integrated Safety Case Development Environment (ISCaDE) residing on a Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) database. Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) and its XML dialect Goal Structuring Mark-up Language (GSML), developed at the University of York, is used to produce messaging specifications to represent the safety case model. Furthermore, these specifications are used to build EDI software to transport data across different safety packages. Title: MINING SELF-SIMILARITY IN TIME SERIES Author(s): Song Meina, Zhan Xiaosu and Song Junde Abstract: Self-similarity can successfully characterize and forecast intricate, non-periodic and chaos time series avoiding the limitation of traditional methods on LRD (Long-Range Dependence). The potential principals will be found and the future unknown time series will be forecasted through foregoing training. Therefore it is important to mine the LRD by self-similarity analysis. In this paper, mining self-similarity of time series is introduced. And the practical value can be found from two cases study respectively for season-variable trend forecast and network traffic. Title: SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE DESIGN FOR WAP SERVICES BASED ON MISC PLATFORM Author(s): Qun Yu, Meina Song, Junde Song and Xiaosu Zhan Abstract: WAP services have become the available method for subscribers to access mobile Internet through mobile terminal anywhere and anytime. In this paper, a logical architecture of WAP [1] (Wireless application protocol) service systems based on MISC [2] (Mobile Information Service Centre) platform is discussed. The whole system is designed and developed on J2EE [3] (Java 2 Enterprise Edition) architecture and deployed on BEA WebLogic Platform [4]. The WAP services MM(Maintenance and Management) system is implemented by JavaBean[3]、JSP[3](Java Server Pages). While the service logical interfaces are implemented through EJB [3][12](Enterprise Java Bean) which is more flexible, portable and scalable. And they can make the WAP services interface with the designed system through much more styles. Besides, the client display WAP page is developed with Java Servlet[3][13]. Furthermore, several WAP services based on this WAP System Platform have been developed, which validates the practice value of this system. An optimal scheme is presented to conclude in this paper, which will reduce the development complexity, deployment risk and so on. Title: MANAGING NETWORK TROUBLES WHILE INTERACTING WITHIN COLLABORATIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Thierry Duval and Chadi El Zammar Abstract: We are interested in real time collaborative interactions within CVEs. This domain relies on the low latency offered by high speed networks. Participants of networked collaborative virtual environments can suffer from misunderstanding weird behavior of some objects of the virtual universe, especially when low level network troubles occur during a collaborative session. Our aim is to make such a virtual world easier to understand by using some graphic visualizations (dedicated 3D metaphors) in such a way that the users become aware of these problems. In this paper we present how two independant mechanisms may be coupled together for a better management and awareness of network troubles while interacting within a networked collaborative virtual environment. The first mechanism is an awareness system that visualizes, through special metaphors, the existence of a network trouble as strong delay or disconnection. The second mechanism is a virtual object migration system that allows the migration of an object from one site to another to ensure a non interrupted manipulation in case of network troubles. We will detail only this awareness system and we will show how it uses the migration system to allow users to go on interacting while network breakdowns occur. Title: AN ACTIVE DATABASE APPROACH TO COMPUTERISED CLINICAL GUIDELINE MANAGEMENT Author(s): Kudakwashe Dube and Bing Wu Abstract: This paper presents a generic approach, and a case study practising the approach, based on a unified framework harnessing the event-condition-action (ECA) rule paradigm and the active database for the management of computer-based clinical practice guidelines and protocols (CPGs). The CPG management is cast into three perspectives: specification, execution and manipulation, making up three management planes of our framework. The ECA rule paradigm is the core CPG representational formalism while the active database serves as the kernel within the CPG management environment facilitating integration with electronic healthcare records and clinical workflow. The benefits of the approach are: flexibility of CPG management; integration of CPGs with electronic patient records and clinical workflows; and incorporation of CPG management system into computerised healthcare systems. Title: TRUST AND VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS - EMERGENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRTUAL INTERORGANISATIONAL WORK IN THE GLOBAL CHEMICALS INDUSTRY Author(s): Paul Lewis and Maria Katsorchi-Hayes Abstract: The development of Grid computing technologies has stimulated additional interest in the concept of the virtual organization, with the promise of ‘always available’ processing power seeming to offer sufficient processing power to overcome any technical obstacles to transparent global inter-organizational working. However, whilst the academic literature has given much attention to the theory of virtual organization there have been few viable real-life examples. This paper reports on research undertaken in the UK Chemicals industry where the technical design of Grid middleware was supported by an interpretive investigation of the ‘fit’ between the needs of industry and the forms of interorganisational working that the middleware was intended to support. The research suggests that this discrepancy between interest in, and implementation of, virtual organizations may arise from a misunderstanding of the role trust plays in existing business practices and the consequent requirements for supporting trust in a virtual organization. Business relationships emerge to be deeply rooted in personal contact and popular and elusive views of looking at virtual organizing need to be reconsidered in favor of a more context-bounded approach. Title: MULTIAGENT BASED SIMULATION TOOL FOR TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS DECISION SUPPORT Author(s): Janis Grundspenkis and Egons Lavendelis Abstract: A transportation and logistics domain belongs to complex problems domains because there are many geographically distributed companies who may enter or leave the system at any time. Analysis of the great number of publications reveals that although traditional mathematical modelling and simulation techniques still dominate, new approaches start to appear. Agent technologies and multiagent systems emerge into transportation and logistics domain only recently. The paper proposes the developed multiagent based simulation tool for decision support in transportation and logistics domain. The multiagent system consists from clients’ agents and logistics companies agents which may participate in four types of auctions, namely, English auction, Dutch auction, First-price sealed-bid auction and Vickrey auction. A client is an auctioneer who is making decision about the best offer of delivering goods. The simulation tool is implemented using Borland C++ Builder and MS Access database. Title: AYLLU: AGENT-INSPIRED COOPERATIVE SERVICES FOR HUMAN INTERACTION Author(s): Oskar Cantor, Leonardo Mancilla and Enrique González Abstract: Nowadays, people not only needs to communicate, but also require to cooperate in order to achieve common goals. Thus, groupware applications are more complex, they have to satisfy new requirements of cooperation between people in many areas such as: organizations, industries or entertainment. Besides, due to the remarkable increment in the use of mobile devices and other technologies, groupware has found new environments to provide solutions and better services to end users. The Ayllu human cooperation model states that people must interact using well defined and structured protocols as rational cooperative agents do. This paper presents the Ayllu architecture, which is intended to develop groupware applications with a cooperative approach, called 5C paradigm; based on software agents that act as mediators between users working cooperatively. Cooperative services are constructed and executed by a mechanism called volatile group. Ayllu supports the execution of cooperative services, people can cooperate immersed in a pervasive environment, interact in an organized fashion, conform communities and pursue common objectives without concerning about their individual context. Title: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITY Author(s): Lambèr Royakkers, Davide Grossi and Frank Dignum Abstract: We analyze the organizational structure of multi-agent systems and explain the precise added value and the effects of such organizational structure on the involved agents. To pursue this aim, contributions from social and organization theory are considered which provide a solid theoretical foundation to this analysis. We argue that organizational structures should be seen along at least three dimensions, instead of just one: power, coordination, and control. In order to systematize the approach, formal tools are used to describe the organizational structure as well as the effect of such structures on the activities in multi-agent systems, and especially the responsibilities within organizations of agents. The main aim of the research is to provide a formal analysis of the connections between collective obligations to individual responsibilities. Which individual agent in a group should be held responsible if an obligation directed to the whole group is not fulfilled? We will show how the three dimensions of an organizational structure together with a specific task decomposition determine the responsibilities within a (norm-governed) organization. Title: CROCODIAL: CROSSLINGUAL COMPUTER-MEDIATED DIALOGUE Author(s): Paul Piwek and Richard Power Abstract: We describe a novel approach to crosslingual dialogue which allows for highly accurate communication of semantically complex content. The approach is introduced through an application in a B2B scenario. We are currently building a browser-based prototype for this scenario. The core technology underlying the approach is natural language generation. We also discuss how the proposed approach can complement Machine Translation-based solutions to crosslingual dialogue. Title: A DEFEASIBLE DEONTIC MODEL FOR INTELLIGENT SIMULATION Author(s): Kazumi Nakamatsu Abstract: We introduce an intelligent drivers' model for traffic simulation in a small area including some intersections, which is formalized in a paraconsistent annotated logic program EVALPSN. The intelligent drivers' model can infer drivers' speed control actions such as slow down" based on EVALPSN defeasible deontic reasoning and deal with minute speed change of cars in the simulation system. Title: A DESIGN METHOD FOR INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL SERVICE PROCESSES Author(s): Rainer Schmidt Abstract: Service processes play a more and more important part in modern economies. However, their design does not achieve the flexibility and efficiency known from ordinary business processes. Furthermore, their double identity of being process and product at the same time is not properly represented in present design methods. Therefore, a new method for the design and the support of inter-organizational service processes is introduced. It is based on so called perspectives for separating independently evolving parts of the service processes. Based on it, a component-oriented approach for process design is developed. Title: AN ABSTRACT ARCHITECTURE FOR SERVICE COORDINATION IN IP2P ENVIRONMENTS Author(s): Cesar Caceres, Alberto Fernandez, Sascha Ossowski and Matteo Vasirani Abstract: Intelligent agent-based peer-to-peer (IP2P) environments provide a means for pervasively providing and flexibly co-ordinating ubiquitous business application services to the mobile users and workers in the dynamically changing contexts of open, large-scale, and pervasive settings. In this paper, we present an abstract architecture for service delivery and coordination in IP2P environments that has been developed within the CASCOM project. Furthermore, we outline the potential benefits of a role-based interaction modelling approach for a concrete application of this abstract architecture based on a real-world scenario for emergency assistance in the healthcare domain Title: TOWARD A PI-CALCULUS BASED VERIFICATION TOOL FOR WEB SERVICES ORCHESTRATIONS Author(s): Faisal Abouzaid Abstract: Web services constitute a dynamic field of research about technologies of the Internet. Web services orchestration and choreography are related to Web services composition and are a way of defining a complex service out of simpler ones. Several languages for describing composition of business processes have been presented in the last years, but WS-BPEL 2.0, is in the way for becoming a standard. To check the good behaviour of the produced compositions, but also to check equivalence between services, formalization is necessary. In this paper a contribution to the field of Formal Verification of web services composition is presented using a pi-calculus-based approach for the verification of composite web services by applying model checking methods. We adopt the possibility of exploiting benefits from existing works by translating an Business Process Language such as BPEL to a system model of the pi-calculus for which analysis and verification techniques have already been well established and there are existing tools for model checking systems. We therefore present the basis of a framework aimed to specification and verification, related to some temporal logic, of web services composition. Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Information Systems (PRIS-2006) Title: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE METHODS APPLICATION IN LIVER DISEASES CLASSIFICATION FROM CT IMAGES Author(s): Daniel Smutek, Akinobu Shimizu, Ludvik Tesar, Hidefumi Kobatake and Shigeru Nawano Abstract: An application of artificial intelligence in the field of automatization in medicine is described. A computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for focal liver lesions automatic classification in CT images is being developed. The texture analysis methods are used for the classification of hepatocellular cancer and liver cysts. CT contrast enhanced images of 20 adult subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma or with non-parasitic solitary liver cyst were used as entry data. A total number of 130 spatial and second-order probabilistic texture features were computed from the images. Ensemble of Bayes classifiers was used for the tissue classification. Classification success rate was as high as 100% when estimated by leave-one-out method. This high success rate was achieved with as few as one optimal descriptive feature representing the average deviation of horizontal curvature computed from original pixel gray levels. This promising result allows next amplification of this approach in distinguishing more types of liver diseases from CT images and its further integration to PACS and hospital information systems. Title: LARGE SCALE FACE RECOGNITION WTH KERNEL CORRELATION FEATURE ANALYSIS WITH SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES Author(s): Jingu Heo, Marios Savvides and B. V. K. Vijayakumar Abstract: Recently, Direct Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Gram-Schmidt LDA methods have been proposed for face recognition. By utilizing the smallest eigenvalues in the within-class scatter matrix they exhibit better performance compared to Eigenfaces and Fisherfaces. However, these linear subspace methods may not discriminate faces well due to large nonlinear distortions in the face images. Redundant class dependence feature analysis (CFA) method exhibits superior performance compared to other methods by representing nonlinear features well. We show that with a proper choice of nonlinear features in the CFA, the performance is significantly improved. Evaluation is performed with PCA, KPDA, KDA, and KCFA using different distance measures on a large scale database from the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). By incorporating the SVM for a new distance measure, the performance gain is dramatic regardless of all algorithms. Title: THE WAY OF ADJUSTING PARAMETERS OF THE EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE: NEW APPROACH Author(s): I. Bruha and F. Franek Abstract: We have designed and developed a general knowledge representation tool, an expert system shell called McESE (McMaster Expert System Environment); it derives a set of production (decision) rules of a very general form. Such a production set can be equivalently symbolized as a decision tree. McESE exhibits several parameters such as the weights, thresholds, and the certainty propagation functions that have to be adjusted (designed) according to a given problem, for instance, by a given set of training examples. We can use the traditional machine learning (ML) or data mining (DM) algorithms for inducing the above parameters can be utilized. In this methodological case study, we discuss an application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to adjust (generate) parameters of the given tree that can be then used in the rule-based expert system shell McESE. The only requirement is that a set of McESE decision rules (or more precisely, the topology of a decision tree) be given. Title: FACIAL FEATURE TRACKING AND OCCLUSION RECOVERY IN AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE Author(s): Thomas J. Castelli, Margrit Betke and Carol Neidle Abstract: Facial features play an important role in expressing grammatical information in signed languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Gestures such as raising or furrowing the eyebrows are key indicators of constructions such as yes-no questions. Periodic head movements (nods and shakes) are also an essential part of the expression of syntactic information, such as negation (associated with a side-to-side headshake). Therefore, identification of these facial gestures is essential to sign language recognition. One problem with detection of such grammatical indicators is occlusion recovery. If the signer's hand blocks his/her eyebrows during production of a sign, it becomes difficult to track the eyebrows. We have developed a system to detect such grammatical markers in ASL that recovers promptly from occlusion. Our system detects and tracks evolving templates of facial features, which are based on an anthropometric face model, and interprets the geometric relationships of these templates to identify grammatical markers. It was tested on a variety of ASL sentences signed by various Deaf native signers and detected facial gestures used to express grammatical information, such as raised and furrowed eyebrows as well as headshakes. Title: TRACKING AND PREDICTION OF TUMOR MOVEMENT IN THE ABDOMEN Author(s): Margrit Betke, Jason Ruel, Gregory C. Sharp, Steve B. Jiang, David P. Gierga and George T. Y. Chen Abstract: Methods for tracking and prediction of abdominal tumor movement under free breathing conditions are proposed. Tumor position is estimated by tracking surgically implanted clips surrounding the tumor. The clips are segmented from fluoroscopy videos taken during pre-radiotherapy simulation sessions. After the clips have been tracked during an initial observation phase, motion models are computed and used to predict tumor position in subsequent frames. Two methods are proposed and compared that use Fourier analysis to evaluate the quasi-periodic tumor movements due to breathing. Results indicate that the methods have the potential to estimate mobile tumor position to within a couple of millimeters for precise delivery of radiation. Title: IMPROVED SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION FOR SUPERVISED LEARNING IN A HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATASET Author(s): Ricco Rakotomalala and Faouzi Mhamdi Abstract: Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is a useful technique for dimensionality reduction with a controlled loss of information. This paper makes the very simple but worth-while observation that many attributes that contain no information about the class label, may thus be selected erroneously for a supervised learning task. We propose to first use a very tolerant filter to select on a univariate basis which attributes to include in the subsequent SVD. The features, the latent variables'', extracted from relevant descriptors allow to build a better classifier with a significant improvement of the generalization error rate and less cpu time. We show the efficiency of this combination of feature selection and construction approaches on a protein classification context. Title: A HYBRID APPROACH USING SET THEORY (HAST) FOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (MR) IMAGE SEGMENTATION Author(s): Liu Jiang, Chee Kin BanP, Tan Boon Pin, Shuter Borys and Wang Shih-Chang Abstract: This paper describes a new Hybrid Approach using Set Theory (HAST) for Magnetic Resonance (MR) Image segmentation based on two existing tech-niques, region-based and level set methods. In our approach, instead of using the typical pipeline methodology to integrate the two techniques, a hybrid set-based methodology will be proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of HAST, MR images taken from a national hospital that reflects the quality of real world medical images are used. A comparison between the two individual techniques and HAST will also be made to demonstrate the effectiveness of the latter. Title: FACE SEGREGATION AND RECOGNITION BY CORTICAL MULTI-SCALE LINE AND EDGE CODING Author(s): João Rodrigues and J. M. Hans du Buf Abstract: Models of visual perception are based on image representations in cortical area V1 and higher areas which contain many cell layers for feature extraction. Basic simple, complex and end-stopped cells provide input for line, edge and keypoint detection. In this paper we present an improved method for multi-scale line/edge detection based on simple and complex cells. We illustrate the line/edge representation for object reconstruction, and we present models for multi-scale face (object) segregation and recognition that can be embedded into feedforward dorsal and ventral data streams (the what" and `where" subsystems) with feedback streams from higher areas for obtaining translation, rotation and scale invariance. Title: EAR BIOMETRICS IN PASSIVE HUMAN IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS Author(s): Michal Choras Abstract: The article discusses various issues concerning ear biometrics in identification systems. The major advantage of ear as the source of data for human identification is the ease of image acquisition, which can be performed even without examined person's knowledge. Moreover, user's acceptability and easy interaction with the system make ear biometrics a perfect solution of secure authentication for example in access-control applications. In the article the focus is on the ear biometrics motivation, ear identification system design and user interaction. Feature extraction methods from ear images are also discussed. Title: IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING MULTISCALAR TEXTURE CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX Author(s): Sanjoy Kumar Saha, Amit Kumar Das and Bhabatosh Chanda Abstract: We have designed and implemented a texture based image retrieval system that uses multiscalar texture co-occurrence matrix. The pixel array corresponding to an image is divided into a number of blocks of size 2 x 2 and a scheme is proposed to compute texture value for each of these blocks and then the texture co-occurrence matrix is formed. Image texture features are determined based on this matrix. Finally, a multiscalar version of the method is presented to cope with the texture pattern of various scale. Experiment using Brodatz texture database shows that retrieval performance of the proposed features is better than that of gray-level co-occurrence matrix and wavelet based features. Title: MULTINOMIAL MIXTURE MODELLING FOR BILINGUAL TEXT CLASSIFICATION Author(s): Jorge Civera and Alfons Juan Abstract: Mixture modelling of class-conditional densities is a standard pattern classification technique. In text classification, the use of class-conditional multinomial mixtures can be seen as a generalisation of the Naive Bayes text classifier relaxing its (class-conditional feature) independence assumption. In this paper, we describe and compare several extensions of the class-conditional multinomial mixture-based text classifier for bilingual texts. Title: PREDICTION OF PROTEIN TERTIARY STRUCTURE CLASS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTRA Author(s): Andreas Procopiou, Nigel M. Allinson, Gareth R. Jones and David T. Clarke Abstract: A new approach to predict the tertiary structure class of proteins from synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectra is presented. A protein’s SRCD spectrum is first approximated using a Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) and the resulting set is used to train different varieties of Support Vector Machine (SVM). The performance of three well known multi-class SVM schemes are evaluated and a method presented that takes into account the properties of spectra for each of the structure classes. Title: SEMANTIC-BASED SIMILIARITY OF MUSIC Author(s): Michael Rentzsch and Frank Seifert Abstract: Existing approaches to music identification such as audio fingerprinting are generally data-driven and based on statistical information. They require a particular pattern for each individual instance of the same song. Hence, these approaches are not capable of dealing with the vast amount of music that is composed via methods of improvisation and variation. Futhermore, they are unable to measure the similarity of two pieces of music. This paper presents a different, semantic-based view on the identification and structuring of symbolic music patterns. This new method takes advantage of a conceptual model for music perception. Thus, it allows us to detect different instances of the same song and acquire their degree of similarity. Title: USER SPECIFIC PARAMETERS IN ONE-CLASS PROBLEMS: THE CASE OF KEYSTROKE DYNAMICS Author(s): Sylvain Hocquet, Jean-Yves Ramel and Hubert Cardot1 Abstract: In this paper, we propose a method to find and use user-dependant parameters to increase the performance of a keystroke dynamic system. These parameters include the security threshold and fusion weights of different classifiers. We have determined a set of global parameters, which increase the performance of some keystroke dynamics methods. Our experiments show that parameter personalization greatly increases the performances of keystroke dynamics systems. The main problem is how to estimate the parameters from only a small user training set containing ten login sequences. This problem is a promising way to increase performance in biometric but is still open today Title: FACE RECOGNITION IN DIFFERENT SUBSPACES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY Author(s): Borut Batagelj and Franc Solina Abstract: Face recognition is one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding and has gained much attention in recent years. Among many approaches to the problem of face recognition, appearance-based subspace analysis still gives the most promising results. In this paper we study the three most popular appearance-based face recognition projection methods (PCA, LDA and ICA). All methods are tested in equal working conditions regarding preprocessing and algorithm implementation on the FERET data set with its standard tests.We also compare the ICA method with its whitening preprocess and find out that there is no significant difference between them. When we compare different projection with different metrics we found out that the choice of appropriate projection-metric combination is depended of the nature of the recognition task. Our results are compared to other studies and some discrepancies are pointed out. Title: MULTI-MODAL CATEGORIZATION OF MEDICAL IMAGES FOR AUTOMATIC INDEXING OF ON-LINE HEALTH-RESOURCES Author(s): Filip Florea, Eugen Barbu, Alexandrina Rogozan and Abdelaziz Bensrhair Abstract: Our work is focused on the automatic categorization of medical images according to their visual content for indexing and retrieval purposes in the context of the CISMeF health-catalogue. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of our medical image categorization algorithm according to the image's modality, anatomic region and view angle. For this purpose we represented the medical images using texture and statistical features. The high dimensionality led us to transform this representation into a symbolic description, using block labels obtained after a clustering procedure. A medical image database of 10322 images, representing 33 classes was selected by an experienced radiologist. The classes are defined considering the images medical modality, anatomical region and acquisition view angle. An average precision of approximately 83% was obtained using KNN classifiers, and a top performance of 91.19% was attained with 1NN when categorizing the images with respect to the defined 33 classes. The performances raise to 93.62% classification accuracy when only the modality is needed. The experiments we present in this paper show that the considered image representation obtains high recognition rates, despite the difficult context of medical imaging. Title: WEIGHTED EVIDENCE ACCUMULATION CLUSTERING USING SUBSAMPLING Author(s): F. Jorge F. Duarte, Ana L. N. Fred, Fátima Rodrigues, João M. M. Duarte and João Lourenço Abstract: We introduce an approach based on evidence accumulation (EAC) for combining partitions in a clustering ensemble. EAC uses a voting mechanism to produce a co-association matrix based on the pairwise associations obtained from N partitions and where each partition has equal weight in the combination process. By applying a clustering algorithm to this co-association matrix we obtain the final data partition. In this paper we propose a clustering ensemble combination approach that uses subsampling and that weights differently the partitions (WEACS). We use two ways of weighting each partition: SWEACS, using a single validation index, and JWEACS, using a committee of indices. We compare combination results with the EAC technique and the HGPA, MCLA and CSPA methods by Strehl and Gosh using subsampling, and conclude that the WEACS approaches generally obtain better results. As a complementary step to the WEACS approach, we combine all the final data partitions produced by the different variations of the method and use the Ward Link algorithm to obtain the final data partition. Workshop on Model-Driven Enterprise Information Systems (MDEIS-2006) Title: MODEL-BASED DEVELOPMENT WITH VALIDATED MODEL TRANSFORMATION Author(s): László Lengyel, Tihamér Levendovszky, Gergely Mezei and Hassan Charaf Abstract: Model-driven software engineering is one of the most focused research fields. Domain-specific modeling facilitates that systems be specified on a higher level of abstraction. Model processors automatically generate the lower level artifacts. Graph transformation is a widely used technique for model transformations. Especially visual model transformations can be expressed by graph transformations, since graphs are well-suited to describe the underlying structures of models. Model transformations often need to follow an algorithm that requires a strict control over the execution sequence of the rewriting rules, with the additional benefit of making the implementation more efficient. Using a rather complex but illustrative case study from the field of model-based development, this paper presents the visual control flow support of the Visual Modeling and Transformation System (VMTS). The VMTS Visual Control Flow Language (VCFL) uses stereotyped activity diagrams to specify model-driven control flow structures and OCL constraints to choose between different control flow branches. The presented approach facilitates composing complex model transformations of simple transformation steps and executing them. Title: ATC: A LOW-LEVEL MODEL TRANSFORMATION LANGUAGE Author(s): Antonio Estévez, Javier Padrón, E. Victor Sánchez and José Luis Roda Abstract: Model Transformations constitute a key component in the evolution of Model Driven Software Development (MDSD). MDSD tools base their full potential on transformation specifications between models. Several languages and tools are already in production, and OMG's MDA is currently undergoing a standardization process of these specifications. In this paper, we present Atomic Transformation Code (ATC), an imperative low-level model transformation language meant to be placed as an intermediate layer between the user transformation languages and the underlying transformation engine, to effectively decouple their dependencies. Therefore work invested on this engine is protected against variations on the high-level transformation languages supported. This approach can ease the adoption of QVT and other language initiatives. Also it provides MDA modeling tools with a valuable benefit by supporting the seamless integration of a variety of transformation languages simultaneously. Title: MDA APPROACH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMBEDDABLE APPLICATIONS ON COMMUNICATING DEVICES Author(s): Eyob Alemu, Dawit Bekele and Jean-Philippe Babau Abstract: One of the major sources of software complexity is heterogeneity and evolution of platforms. Platform variation is highly impacting the lifetime support of software products. As a solution, a new software development methodology called MDA (Model Driven Architecture) has been recently introduced by OMG . MDA is a strategy of separating the specification of the software system from the specification of its implementation on platforms as two different concerns of development. These two concerns are described as Platform Independent Model (PIM) and Platform Specific Model (PSM). MDA is now being successfully used as a promising solution at enterprise level software systems. This success of MDA has made it a viable choice for other domains that face similar or even worse level of complexity such as the domain of embedded systems. However, recent efforts focused on extending the modeling capability of the core standards of MDA, particularly UML, towards the concepts in embedded systems such as Resource and Quality of Service (QoS). Since there is no abstraction or middleware layer that can encapsulate all the variation in this domain, all of the platforms appear as different implementation choices. Therefore, adapting the MDA towards this domain requires a new approach that recognizes such peculiarities. Focusing on the communications subsystem of embedded platforms, this paper introduces an MDA based approach for the development of embeddable communicable applications. A QoS aware and resource oriented approach, which exhibits the runtime interaction between applications and platforms, is proposed. Reservation based (typically connection oriented) networks are considered. The applicability of the approach is also presented for Bluetooth and IrDA that shows the separation of application level reservation request from the actual network level reservation provided through a mapping layer. Title: MODEL-DRIVEN ERP IMPLEMENTATION Author(s): Philippe Dugerdil and Gil Gaillard Abstract: Nowadays, ERP systems provide an efficient solution to the company’s standard IT needs. However, when faced with the decision to implement an ERP system, managers must often trade IT system control for IT system efficiency and standardization. In fact, ERP systems are very complex and it is often the case that the internal IT team of a company will not be able to master the full system. To obtain a fair level of understanding it is necessary to model the system at a higher level of abstraction: the business processes. However, another problem is the accuracy of the mapping between this view and the actual implementation. A solution is to make use of the OMG’s MDA framework. In fact, this framework lets the developer model his system at a high abstraction level and allows the MDA tool to generate the implementation details. We therefore decided to investigate the idea to build a prototype that would provide a semi-automatic way to customize an ERP system from a high level model of the business processes. This paper presents our results in applying the MDA framework to ERP implementation. We also show how our prototype is structured and implemented in the IBM/Rational® XDE® environment Title: A PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE ON MODEL-DRIVEN HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Author(s): Antonio Estévez, José D. García, Javier Padrón, Carlos López, Marko Txopitea, Beatriz Alustiza and José L. Roda Abstract: The integration of heterogeneous systems is usually a complex task. In this study we present a strategy which can be followed for the integration of a framework based on Struts and J2EE, the transactional system CICS and the document manager FileNet. The principal aim of the project was to redefine the work methodology of the developers in order to improve productivity. Following model-based development strategies, especially MDA, a single framework for the three environments has been developed. Independent metamodels were created for each one of the environments, which finally led to a flexible, open and unified metamodel. The developer could then increase his productivity by abstracting from the particular implementation details related to each environment, and putting his efforts in creating a business model that is able to represent the new system. Title: MODELING ODP CORRESPONDENCES USING QVT Author(s): José Raúl Romero, Nathalie Moreno and Antonio Vallecillo Abstract: Viewpoint modeling is currently seen as an effective technique for specifying complex software systems. However, having a set of independent viewpoints on a system is not enough. These viewpoints should be related, and these relationships made explicit in order to count with a set of complete and consistent specifications of the system. RM-ODP defines five complementary viewpoints for the specification of open distributed systems, and establishes correspondences between viewpoint elements. ODP correspondences provide statements that relate the various different viewpoint specifications, expressing their semantic relationships. However, ODP does not provide an exhaustive set of correspondences between viewpoints, nor defines any language or notation to represent correspondences. In this paper we explore the use of MOF QVT for representing ODP correspondences in the context of ISO/IEC 19793, i.e., when the ODP viewpoint specifications of a system are represented as UML models. We show that QVT is expressive enough to represent them, and discuss some of the issues that we have found when modeling ODP correspondences with QVT relations. Title: MODEL QUALITY IN THE CONTEXT OF MODEL-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Ida Solheim and Tor Neple Abstract: Model-Driven Development (MDD) poses new quality requirements to models. This paper presents these requirements by specializing a generic framework for model quality. Of particular interest are transformability and maintainability, two main quality criteria for models to be used in MDD. These two are decomposed into quality criteria that can be evaluated or measured. Another pertinent discussion item is the positive implication of MDD-related tools, both on the models in particular and on the success of the MDD process. Title: TOWARDS RIGOROUS METAMODELING Author(s): Benoît Combemale, Sylvain Rougemaille, Xavier Crégut, Frédéric Migeon, Marc Pantel, Christine Maurel and Bernard Coulette Abstract: MDE has provided several significant improvements in the development of complex systems by focusing on more abstract preoccupation than programming. However, some more steps are needed on the semantic side in order to reach high-level certification such as the one currently required for critical embedded systems (which will also probably be required in the near future for Information Systems as application of Basel II kind of agreements). This paper presents different means to specify models semantics at the meta-model level. We will focus on the definition of executable SPEM-based development process models (work-flow related models) using an approach defined for the TOPCASED project. Title: ABSTRACT PLATFORM AND TRANSFORMATIONS FOR MODEL-DRIVEN SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT Author(s): Joao Paulo A. Almeida, Luis Ferreira Pires and Marten van Sinderen Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the use of abstract platforms and transformation for designing applications according to the principles of the service-oriented architecture. We illustrate our approach by discussing the use of the service discovery pattern at a platform-independent design level. We show how a trader service can be specified at a high-level of abstraction and incorporated in an abstract platform for service-oriented development. Designers can then build platform-independent models of applications by composing application parts with this abstract platform. Application parts can use the trader service to publish and discover service offers. We discuss how the abstract platform can be realized into two target platforms, namely Web Services (with UDDI) and CORBA (with the OMG trader). Workshop on Technologies for Collaborative Business Processes (TCoB-2006) Title: TOWARDS A COORDINATION MODEL FOR WEB SERVICES Author(s): Zakaria Maamar, Nanjangud C. Narendra and Philippe Thiran Abstract: The increasing popularity of Web services for application integration has strengthened the need for automated Web services composition. In order for this to succeed, however, the joint execution of Web services requires a coordination model. Coordination’s main use is to solve conflicts between Web services. Conflicts could be on sharable resources, order dependencies, or communication delays. The proposed coordination model tackles these conflicts with three inter-connected blocks defined as conflict, exception, and management. Conflicts among Web services raise exceptions that are handled using appropriate mechanisms as part of the coordination model. The deployment of this model is illustrated using a simple yet realistic example. Title: EXTRACTING AND MAINTAINING PROJECT KNOWLEDGE USING ONTOLOGIES Author(s): Panos Fitsilis, Vassilios Gerogiannis and Achilles Kameas Abstract: One of the most valuable resources for organizations today is knowledge developed and held within their teams during the execution of their projects. Although the need for maximal reuse of lessons learned and knowledge accumulated for keeping companies at the leading edge is evident, this knowledge is often lost because it can be difficult or impossible to articulate. k.PrOnto framework infuses the process of project management with knowledge management technology and provides project managers with concepts and tools to support them in decision making and project control. The tools operate at a stand-alone mode, but, in the context of k.PrOnto architecture, can also be used as components of a distributed system operating at a higher organizational level. Thus the k.PrOnto framework assists large organizations in identifying best practices, metrics and guidelines, starting from individual projects and in amplifying their efforts to achieve organizational maturity and build corporate culture and memory. Title: COLLABORATIVE BUSINESS PROCESS LIFECYCLES Author(s): Philipp Walter and Dirk Werth Abstract: Business process lifecycle management is established for the continuous improvement of internal business processes that do not exceed company borders. Therefore, the concept could also be applied to enhance collaborative business processes spanning over multiple enterprises. In contrast to the intra-organizational case, lifecycle management of cross-organizational collaborative processes imposes several organizational and technological challenges that results from the multiple-independent-actors-environment of collaborations. In this article, we address these challenges and present a conceptual solution for the different phases of this lifecycle. Finally, we propose a technical architecture that prototypically implements these concepts. Title: A MULTI-LEVEL MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING CROSS-ORGANIZATIONAL BUSINESS PROCESSES Author(s): Ulrike Greiner, Sonia Lippe, Timo Kahl, Jörg Ziemann and Frank-Walter Jäkel Abstract: Increasing cooperation of organizations leads to the necessity of efficient modeling and implementation of cross-organizational business processes (CBPs). Various stakeholders that pursue different perspectives on processes are involved in the design of CBPs. Enterprise modeling supports a common understanding of business processes for different stakeholders across organizations and serves as basis to generate executable models. Models include knowledge of internal processes as well as demands for CBPs. The paper presents concepts and a first prototype of a modeling framework supporting process designers to get a common agreement on their processes across different companies on different levels of abstraction. Title: ON COLLABORATIONS AND CHOREOGRAPHIES Author(s): Giorgio Bruno, Giulia Bruno and Marcello La Rosa Abstract: This paper analyzes binary collaborations and multi-party collaborations in the context of business processes and proposes a lifecycle in which collaborations are first represented with abstract models called collaboration processes, then embodied in business processes and finally implemented in BPEL. In particular this paper discusses how to represent multi-party collaborations and presents two approaches: one is based on binary collaborations complemented with choreographies, and the other draws upon the notion of extended binary collaborations. Title: SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES COMPOSITION FOR THE MASS CUSTOMIZATION PARADIGM Author(s): Yacine Sam, Omar Boucelma and Mohand-Saïd Hacid Abstract: In order to fulfill current customers’ requirements, companies and services providers need to supply a large panel of their products and services. This situation has led recently to the Mass Customizing Paradigm, meaning that products and services should be designed in such a way that makes it possible to deliver and adapt different configurations. The increasing number of services available on the Web, together with the heterogeneity of Web audiences, are among the main reasons that motivate the adoption of this paradigm to Web services technology. In this paper we describe a solution that allows automatic customization of Web services: a supplier configuration, published in a services repository, is automatically translated into another configuration that is better suitable for fulfilling customers' needs. Title: WORKFLOW SEMANTIC DESCRIPTION FOR INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL COOPERATION Author(s): Nomane Ould Ahmed M'Bareck and Samir Tata Abstract: The work we present here is in line with a novel approach for inter-organizational workflow cooperation that consists of workflow advertisement, workflow interconnection, and workflow cooperation. For advertisement, workflows should be described. Nevertheless, by using a description language like XPDL only syntactic problems can be solved. In this paper, we propose a three steps method for semantic description of workflows based on XPDL and OWL. First, workflows described using XPDL, are annotated to distinguish cooperative activities and non cooperative ones. Second, to preserve privacy, a view, that we call cooperative interface, for each different partner is generated. Third, cooperatives interfaces are described using OWL according to an ontology we have defined for cooperatives workflows. Title: MIGRATING BDIFS FROM A PEER-TO-PEER DESIGN TO A GRID SERVICE ARCHITECTURE Author(s): Tom Kirkham and Thomas Varsamidis Abstract: This paper documents the transition of a distributed Peer-to-Peer based business to business enterprise application integration framework, to one using Grid Services. In the context of an E-Business environment we examine the practical strengths of Grid Service development and implementation as opposed to Peer-to-Peer implementation. By exploring the weakness in the BDIFS Peer-to-Peer architecture and workflow we illustrate how we have improved the system using Grid Services. The final part of the paper documents the new Grid Service design and workflow; in particular the creation of the new automated trading mechanism within BDIFS. Title: USING MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS FOR CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN THE CONTEXT OF DISTRIBUTED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES Author(s): Kolja Markwardt, Daniel Moldt, Sven Offermann and Christine Reese Abstract: Today software engineering is facing the problem of the development of distributed software systems. Due to distribution these systems inherit specific problems that need to be tackled during the development. Our approach to handle the problem is to provide an integrated development environment that is based on clear and powerful concepts and which allows to structure a system in a domain-oriented way. As the conceptual basis we apply agent-oriented Petri nets. For the practical part of the control of such applications we use agent-based workflow management system (WFMS) technology. In this paper we illustrate for Change Management, as an important part of the development process, how to apply our approach. The complex application scenarios allow for the illustration of the expressional power of agent-oriented Petri nets and of WFMS technology.

Page Updated on 09-08-2007